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Lunsford, A.A. (2013). The everyday writer (5th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Rosa, A, and Eschholz, P. (2012) Models for writers: short essays for composition (11th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Constructing Arguments
ENG 112 Inductive Reasoning (Specific to General) Syllogism Exercise Tangney/Kahan essays in Models
(Choose one) There are two basic ways to present your thoughts for a logical argument: through inductive or deductive reasoning.
Inductive is the more common type. It moves from a set of specific examples to a general statement, making the “inductive leap” (p. 541).
“After examining enrollment statistics, we can conclude that students do like to take courses offered early in the morning or late in the afternoon” (p. 541). Deductive Reasoning (General to Specific) Deductive reasoning moves from a general statement to a specific conclusion. It works on the model of a syllogism (3-part argument).
A. All women are mortal. (Major premise)
B. Joanie is a woman. (Minor premise)
C. Joanie is mortal. (Conclusion)
Deductive reasoning will fail if either of the premises are untrue, or if your audience fails to see them as true (see pg. 541 in Models). The following sentences are conclusions to a syllogism. Come up with the first two parts of the syllogism (the major and minor premise) for at least two of the claims below:
-People should eat less meat.
-All people should be allowed to marry.
-Gun possession should remain legal for all lay people.
-The U.S. should make English its “official” language. -Find the author's thesis/main argument. Is it effective? Why or why not?
-Find examples of either inductive or deductive reasoning used to support the thesis, and judge their effectiveness. Make sure to note the paragraph numbers.
-Discuss if pathos (appeal to emotion) and ethos (credibility) were used effectively here. Exercise For the topic of "Shaming is/is not an Effective Punishment" come up with one example of both inductive and deductive reasoning that you could possible formulate in to arguments for an essay.