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Copy of Multiple intelligence & child development theories

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Natasha Abd

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Multiple intelligence & child development theories

child development theories & Multiple intelligence
"Mind Mapping" Method.
Main Idea!
Overview of principle
THANK YOU!
Intrapersonal Intelligence
Naturalistic Intelligence
Overview of principles
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
MISS AZIKIN
TESL GROUP 2A
Interpersonal Intelligence
Visual-Spatial Intelligence
Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence
Logical - Mathematical Intelligence
BODILY-KINESTHETIC
musical intelligence
1. Child development theory
: occurs from birth to adulthood was largely ignored throughout much of history. Interest in the field of child development finally began to emerge early in the 20th-century. An understanding of child development is essential because it allows us to fully appreciate the cognitive, emotional, physical, social, and educational growth that children go through from birth and into early adulthood.
Strengths
: Visual and Spatial Judgment
People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good a visualizing things. These individuals are often good with directions
as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures.
Characteristics :
• - Enjoys reading and writing
• - Good at putting puzzles together
• - Good at interpreting pictures, graphs and charts
• - Enjoys drawing, painting and the visual arts
• - Recognizes patterns easily
Potential Career Choices
:
• Architect
• Artist
• Engineer

Strengths
: Words, Language and Writing
People who are strong in linguistic-verbal intelligence are
able to use words well, both when writing and speaking.
These individuals are typically very good at writing stories,
memorizing information and reading.
Characteristics
:
•- Good at remembering written and spoken information
•- Enjoys reading and writing
•- Good at debating or giving persuasive speeches
•- Able to explain things well
•- Often uses humor when telling stories
Potential Career Choices
:
• Writer / Journalist
• Lawyer
• Teacher

Strengths
: Analyzing Problems and Mathematical Operations
People who are strong in logical-mathematical intelligence are good at reasoning, recognizing patterns and
logically analyze problems. These individuals tend to think conceptually about numbers, relationships and patterns.
Characteristics
:
•- Excellent problem-solving skills
•- Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas
•- Likes conducting scientific experiments
•- Good and solving complex computations
Potential Career Choices
:
• Scientist
• Mathematician
• Computer programmer


Strengths
: Physical Movement, Motor Control
Those who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are said to be good at body movement, performing actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity.
Characteristics
:
• Good at dancing and sports
• Enjoy creating things with their hands
• Excellent physical coordination
Potential Career Choices
:
Dancer
• Builder
• Sculptor

Strengths
: Rhythm and Music
People who have strong musical intelligence are good and thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance.
Characteristics
:
• Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments
• Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily
• Good at remembering songs and melodies
• Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm and notes
Potential Career Choices
:
• Musician
• Composer
• Singer
• Music Teacher
• Conductor

Strengths
: Understanding and Relating to Other People
Those who have strong interpersonal intelligence are good understanding and interacting with other people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of those around them.
Characteristics
:
• Good at communicating verbally
• Skilled nonverbal communicators
• See situations from different perspectives
• Create positive relationships with others
• Good at resolving conflict in groups
Potential Career Choices
:
• Psychologist
• Philosopher
• Counselor
• Sales person
• Politician

Strengths
:
Individuals who are strong in intrapersonal intelligence are good at being aware of their own emotional states, feelings and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including day-dreaming, exploring relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths.
Characteristics
:
• Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses
• Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas
• Excellent self-awareness
• Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings
Potential Career Choices
:
• Philosopher
• Writer
• Theorist
• Scientist

Strengths
:
Naturalistic is the most recent addition to Gardner’s theory 5 and has been met with more resistance than his original seven intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interested in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments.
Characteristics
:
• Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology
• Good at categorizing and cataloging information easily
• May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors
• Doesn’t enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature
Potential Career Choices
:
• Biologist
• Conservationist
• Gardener
• Farmer

According to
Bruner
, as students develop their cognitive growth, they move through three stages of learning: enactive, iconic, and symbolic.
Enactive
: Students begin to develop understanding through active manipulation. At this stage, they should be given the opportunity to “play” with the materials in order to fully understand how it works.
Iconic
: Students are able to make visual, images of the used material in their mind and no longer need to use them directly. They are able to construct concrete information from what they learned.
Symbolic
: Stage in which students can use abstract ideas to represent the world. For example, students are able to evaluate, judge, and think critically.


Common teaching Practice

In classroom, teachers use two of Bruner’s principles.
The first principle used is
“spiral curriculum”
proposed by Bruner in 1960s. The concept is to facilitate structuring a curriculum around the great issues, principles, and values that the young generation needs to master for the society.
Another principle is,
one should follow learning prerequisite sequence
. In order for a student to develop from simple to more complex lessons, certain prerequisite knowledge and skills must first be mastered.

With that, they reinforce what is already learnt and unconsciously relates it to previously learned information. What the student will achieve is depth of information where each topic is discrete and disconnected from each other.

Thus, any subject could be taught to any child at any stage of development, if it is presented in the proper manner. This process called
“scaffolding”
, where Bruner sustain that efficient teachers must provide assistance and guidance through these three stages.


"Discovery Learning"
allows opportunities for students to explore and experiment, while encouraging new understandings. The teacher’s main role is the facilitation of learning by providing various experiences for the students.

The
main four principles of Piaget’s theories
focused on the idea of developmentally appropriate education that are suitable for students in terms of their physical and cognitive abilities and their social and emotional needs. The main teaching implications drawn are summarizes from Piaget as follows:

1. A focus on the process of children’s thinking, not just its products.

2. Recognition of the crucial role of children’s self-initiated, (active involvement in learning activities).

3. A de-emphasis on practices aimed at making children adult-like in their thinking.
This refers to what Piaget referred to as the "American question" which is "How can we speed up development?” His belief is that trying to speed up and accelerate children's process through the stages could be worse than no teaching at all.

4. Acceptance of individual differences in developmental progress.
Piaget's theory asserts that children go through all the same developmental stages; however they do so at different rates. Because of this, teachers must make special effort to arrange classroom activities for individuals and groups of children rather than for the whole class group.


Common teaching Practice
1. Sensorimotor Period
:
(Birth 2 Years)
The term "sensorimotor" comes from the child understanding their world largely through their senses for their first 2 years.
In this stage of development the child eventually
develops primary circular reactions
, which are activities centered on the child’s body and repetitious in nature and develop the coordination of separate activities and the evolution of language. A final achievement in this stage
is recognizing cause-and-effect relationships
.We have to provide a rich stimulating environment, like allowing the child to play with toys that squeak when squeezed. For example, rubber duck.



3. Operational Stage
:
for Middle Childhood
In this stage children evolve from prelogical, to understanding some of the rules of logic include reversibility, identity, and compensation. One activity that a child at this age would enjoy is a cooking activity with their mom or dad.
If you get creative, you can inculcate several components of Piaget’s theories into this activity. For example, measuring cups come in all different shapes so it would be fun to measure the exact same measurement using different types of measuring utensils. Also the ingredients could be classified into different categories such as the dry ingredients and the wet ingredients. Do simple experiments, with participation of the students. This will give children the chance to manipulate objects and test out ideas. Try avoiding dealing with more than three of four variables at a time. Children around this age group usually really enjoy helping out in the kitchen, so it turns into a great learning opportunity.

4. Formal Operations
:
for Adolescents

This period is done by applying logic directly to real objects or situations. Teachers should continue using strategies and materials (charts, graph, diagrams) used in the concrete operations stage. This is done by giving step by step explanations and materials.
Different activities can develop different skills. For example, group work will encourage teamwork and problem solving skills. Essay competition like a story on a hypothetical topic such as what life would be like in outer space will allow the child to apply their new creative aspect. Other than that, we can use materials and ideas relevant to the students like when teaching materials about the Civil War, the class could join in a discussion about other issues which have divided our country or Use lyrics from a popular song to teach poetry.

any questions?
2. Preoperational Period
:
for Toddlers and Early Childhood (2-7 years old)
This stage is characterized by the inability to understand all the properties of classes and Transductive reasoning .
Transductive reasoning
involves making inferences from one specific to another based on the individual logic.
Rather than lessons that are very different from the child's world or workbooks activities, children need physical,
hands on practice with facts and skills needed for development
-One way to do this is by playing dress up and encouraging the child to take on a character. For example, playing house.
This is very engaging as they will portray different roles that they observed in their own lives. Activities should also be facilitated at this time.
Another game is to encourage children to play with toys that change shape (ex: playdoh, sand, clay, water)
because this will help them move towards the concept of conservation.
2. Multiple Intelligence Theory
: A theory developed by Howard Gardner about intelligence in 1983. Gardner suggest that individuals do not just have a single intelligence, but rather several that are exhibited through a person’s interests and abilities. Gardner’s model included eight abilities that he concluded to be intelligences including musical, visual-spacial, verbal-linguistic, logical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
Assimilation
:
A child may alter what he sees in order to make sense with the world he already knows .

Example : a father show a child a dog and says, 'this is a dog." the child with naturally perceive that every four-legged furry animal is a dog.


- this is can cause harm to children if they do not passed this stage because it can cause stereotypes which may lead to an inability to accept reality
Accommodation
:
A child will change his inside world
in order to fit with the outside world.
DEFINITION
Example : the child learns the difference between a cat and a dog.
Equilibrium
:
A state of cognitive balance between the individual's understanding
of the world and their experience.
Disequilibrium
:
Is when the understanding of an individual does not explain the
situation that he is experiencing.
- children usually express this state by throwing tantrum

Example: why can't I play with the dog?
Common Teaching Practices.
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