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How We Talk About Our Work

We need to gain comfort in accepting the labels of Linguist and Anthropologist to be professional Interpreters

Brian Cerney

on 26 January 2013

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Transcript of How We Talk About Our Work

How We Talk About Our Work Communication Language Use Language Variation Pidgins, Creoles
& Other Things Models &
Paradigms Transcommunication Language Language
Systems Phonetics is the use of muscles to express language.

Paralinguistics includes non-linguistic vocal inflection (such as changes in pitch and volume) or facial expression (such as mouth and eyebrow movements) for affect and emphasis.

The remainder of semiotics includes vocal signals, eye gaze, visual gestures, and body postures. Semiotics is the study of all possible signaling systems. Emerging Register Variations
Increased Exposure to Various Language Use
Results in Broader Register Variation Abilities Language Phonetics is the study of how elements of language are physically produced. Phonology is the study of how elements of language are combined. Morphology is the study of how bits of meaning (morphemes) combine with other bits of meaning (other morphemes) to form words. Syntax is the study of word orders and the rules governing word orders in a language. Semantics is the study of meaning in words, phrases and sentences Meaning Variation Based On Context Semantic Hierarchies Pragmatics is the study of how social and environmental factors influence the meanings of the speaker Stylistics is the study of how a single person organizes and uses language. Four Sides of the
Linguistic Pyramid Linguistic Communication Originates
and Terminates Within Human Minds Linguistic Communication
Occurs within Physical Contexts Register is how language is being used based on where it is happening, how it is taking place, who is talking to whom, and about what topic:
& How. Review Questions
1.How is language different than communication?
What researcher first brought attention to signed languages
as legitimate languages?
3.How many language channels are there?
4.Which senses are used to detect language?
What is the difference between
Language Channels and Modes of Perception?
6.How many levels are there in the Linguistic Pyramid?
7.What is the most basic, lowest level of the Linguistic Pyramid?
8.What is the difference between phonology and phonetics?
9.Which two levels of the Linguistic Pyramid relate to grammar?
10.What is the difference between morphology and semantics?
11.What is the difference between discourse and stylistics?
12.What four variables contribute to the concept of register?
Aside from Phonetics, at the base of the Linguistic Pyramid,
what do each of the three remaining faces of the pyramid represent? Suggested Activities
Think of three complete sentences (in either a signed or spoken language) that are each composed of only one word. What kinds of sentences are possible?

2.Watch or listen to a story (in either a signed or spoken language). Identify all the nouns in the first minute of the story. How many of the nouns were repeated within the first minute? How many of the nouns were replaced by pronouns during the first minute? How many of the nouns are conceptually related to one another? Now try retelling that same first minute of the story without using any of the nouns more than one time and without using any pronouns at all. How different does it seem from the original? Does it still make sense? Now try telling the same first minute of the story without any nouns and only using the appropriate pronouns. How interesting is the story without nouns? Communication Semiotics
The Nuts and Bolts of Communication Semiotics is the study of all possible signaling systems. Language Use Pragmatics Revisited

• Deborah Tannen’s (1990) Research
Men (hierarchy, competition)
Women (connecting, cooperation)

• Grice’s Maxims
1) quality - truthful
2) quantity - enough, not too much
3) relevance - on topic
4) manner - organized, logical Speech Acts

• Direct Speech Acts
Directives (advise, admonish, ask, beg, order)
Performatives (do, take, give)

• Indirect Speech Acts
Using questions to make statements
Using statements to make requests

• Matching the Pragmatic Goal Between ASL & English
ASL tends to be more direct
English tends to be less direct Conversational Implicature

• Concepts Adjacent to Each Other Imply a Connection

• Issues for Interpreting
Reveal the Implicature Directly
(more clear, but risky)
Maintain as only Implicature
(safer, but may be ineffective) Discourse Analysis

• Narrative Structure - Monologues
Abstract - Announces the Narrative
Orientation - Setting and Background
Complicating Action - Chronological Sequences
Evaluation - Emotional Asides
Result/Resolution - Highlight
Coda - Concluding Statement

• Conversational Structure - Dialogues
Responses/Clarification Requests
Feedback Requests/Feedback
Topic Changes
Closings Language Fluency

• BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)
Simple Vocabulary
Primary Sense of Meaning
Basic Register
More Direct than Indirect

• CALP (Cognitive Academic Linguistic Proficiency)
Jargon/Field-Specific Vocabulary
Secondary and Figurative Senses of Meaning
Complex Registers
Less Direct then Indirect A, B, C, & D Languages

• A Language: Native with BICS and CALP

• B Language: Near-Native with BICS and CALP

• C Language: Non-Native with BICS only

• D Language: Vocabulary and Memorized Phrases
(less than comfortable BICS ability) Multilingual, Monolingual, & Semilingual Language Abilities

• Multilingual (BICS or CALP)
A Language plus one or more B Languages
Dual A Languages (if raised in bilingual setting)

• Monolingual (BICS or CALP)
A Language plus one or more C or D Languages
B Language if limited access during childhood

• Semilingual (BICS only)
Two C Languages
One C and one or more D Language

• Alingual (BICS only)
Multiple D Languages Review Questions
1.What are the four maxims of Grice’s Cooperative Principle?
2.How are Grice’s four maxims relevant to interpreting?
3.Provide two examples each of Indirect Speech Acts and Direct Speech Acts.
4.Provide your own example of conversational implicature.
5.What are the primary components of most narratives?
6.What kinds of turn-signaling devices are used in ASL and English conversations?
7.What do the acronyms BICS and CALP represent?
8.What kinds of fluency are identified by the labels “A”, “B”, and “C” languages?
9.What is the difference between Alingual and Semilingual language ability?
What two important variables must be present for a person to attain monolingual fluency in a language?
11.What does balanced bilingualism mean?
12.What kinds of conditions would lead to a person becoming multilingual? Suggested Activities
Generate six sentences that are direct speech acts that use directive verbs to identify the speech act being generated. Now convert each sentence into a direct speech act that does not directly identify the speech act being accomplished. Example: “I order you to give me that briefcase.” might become “Give me that brief case.”

Generate six indirect speech acts for each of the sentences you generated in the task above. Example: “Could you give me that brief case?”

Watch or Listen to a lecture (in either a signed or spoken language). What discourse markers (organizing words) are used to organize the lecture? What parts of the lecture help you predict parts that are coming up later? What parts review previous information? What does the presenter do to let you know that a piece of information is particularly important?

4.Watch a videotaped recording of an interpretation of a conversation (one-to-one interpreting). Identify the different ways that each consumer of interpreting services signaled turn exchanges. Identify how the interpreter signaled these turn exchanges. Register Variation
Who’s Talking to Whom?
What are the Talking about?
Where is the Talking happening?
How is it Happening? (sound, image, texture) Common Linguistic Changes
Lexical - Word Choice
Syntactic - Word Orders Common Paralinguistic Changes
Volume / Signing Space
Pitch / Facial Expression “Contact Signing”
Ceil Lucas and Clayton Valli (1992) Language Variation Language Variation by
Community Membership:

Dialect = Variation Across Regions

Sociolect = Variation Across Social Classes

Chronolect = Variation Across Time/Generations

Genderlect = Variation Between Genders

Ethnolect = Variation Between Ethnic Groups Most Frequent Points of Variation =
Vocabulary and Pronunciation Language Contact
Code Switching - Changing Languages
Code Mixing - Merging Languages Traditional ASL/English Continuum Language Continua: ASL and English Idiomatic Language Use
Native Pronunciation
Register-Appropriate Vocabulary, Syntax Sociolect Matching
Lexical Choice
Paralinguistic Features
Pitch / Tone Review Questions
1.What four variables influence the development of sociolects?
2.What is the difference between sociolects and dialects?
3.What year did William Stokoe first identify variation in ASL?
4.Which level of the linguistic pyramid was the focus of the first study of American Sign Language?
Identify the three phrases other than “Contact Signing” which have been used to describe language contact between ASL and English.
6.What label did Woodward develop and why is that label now understood to be inaccurate?
7.What was the primary flaw with attempting to represent language contact between ASL and English with a single continuum line?
8.Where are complex grammatical structures of ASL and English located on the revised ASL/English continua?
9.What are the three descriptors used to define the space between ASL and English within the revised ASL/English continua?
10.Flanagan et. al. (1995) identified the occurrence of true Foreigner Talk within ASL. How is Foreigner Talk different than Contact Signing? Suggested Activities
Think of a common children’s story, such as “Goldilocks and the Three Bears,” and tell it (in either a signed or spoken language) as though you were from another part of the country using a different dialect of the same language. Try telling the story again using different sociolects of the same language (class, gender, ethnicity, generation). Tell the story in different registers, as though it were a news report, a play-by-play sports broadcast, a suspense-filled mystery, or an academic lecture.

2.Observe three different examples of communication in very different settings (such as a church, a grocery store, and a classroom). Identify at least ten ways that each kind of communication is different from the other kinds (including gestures, postures, pronunciation differences, vocabulary choices, and complexity of grammar). American 1-Hand Fingerspelling British 2-Hand Fingerspelling Brailled Alphabet Morsed Alphabet Semaphored Alphabet Liddell & Johnson
Transcription/Notation System Spoken English Vowels Chart Spoken English Diphthongs Chart Cued English Vowels Chart Cued English Diphthongs Chart Cued English Consonants Chart Language Encoding Systems Liddell & Johnson Location Transcription Spoken English Consonants Chart Review Questions
What are the five primary parameters for signed language phonology?
2. Which of these five primary parameters does not play a role in lexical distinction for ASL?
3.Identify five different signs that use the 1o- handshape.
4.Identify five different signs that are produced at the SF location.
5. Identify three of the factors that combine for the creation of spoken language phonology.
6.Identify three different pairs of English phonemes that are identically produced except for vocal cord movement (one member of each pair has vocal cord movement while the other does not).
7.What are the primary factors that differentiate English vowels?
8.What are the three different kinds of writing systems?
9.Which language channel do manual cues encode?
10.Which language channel do Braille, Fingerspelling, Morse code, and Semaphore encode? Suggested Activities
Identify all of the signs you can think of which use each of the handshapes defined in the Liddell & Johnson Handshape Transcription Chart.
2.Identify all of the signs you can think of which use each of the locations defined in the Liddell & Johnson Location Transcription Chart.
3.Identify all of the letters that you can think of that phonemically represent each English sound in the Spoken English Consonants Chart.
4.Identify all of the letters that you can think of that phonemically represent each English sound in the Spoken English Vowels Chart.
5.Practice encoding spoken English words using manual cues. How many sounds does each handshape represent?
6.Practice encoding written English with each of the following encoding systems: Braille, American Fingerspelling, Australian/British Fingerspelling, Morse code, and Semaphore.
7.Create a new substitution cipher where each letter of the alphabet (or each possible speech sound) is represented by a new symbol. Encode a message using your new code.
8.Practice a fingerspelling alphabet other than one you already know. Use it to generate messages between yourself and other students.
9.Generate a secret message of your own using the handshapes of signs to spell one message while the signs generate an entirely different message. In other words, create a sign story such that each handshape that you use spells a secret message in the midst of your signing. Pidgins, Creoles
& Other Things Natural Pidgins and Creoles
Pidgins are organized human communication, created from multiple languages, which draw their vocabulary from one language, and their syntax and pronunciation from the remaining languages. One superstrate language
Lg of power, but limited access
Many substrate languages
Lgs of migrant workers/refugees Definition of Language (revisited)

Language is the systematic use of symbols to express and perceive information between members of a community, in which the system is rule-governed, has infinite production possibilities, is intergenerational, and changes over time. A Creole is a pidgin that has been passed on to a second generation.

Creolization is the process of birthing a new language. Artificial Intermodal Pidgins
Created for educational purposes, to teach English

Unfortunately, ASL serves as superstrate (vocabulary) while English and manual inventions serve as substrates (word order, pronunciation). Therefore human brains interacting with Artificial Intermodal Pidgins will work toward ASL features rather than English features, thus defeating the purpose of the AIPs. Artificial Intermodal Pidgins Artificial Intermodal Pidgins The value of the AIPs was not that they taught English, but that they ended oralism, and allowed the use of signing back into the education of deaf children.

Each AIP was careful to include the word “English” which eased the concerns of administrators.

SEE1 (Seeing Essential English) and LOVE (Linguistics of Visual English) both avoided using the word “Sign”.

SEE2 (Signing Exact English) was based more strongly on ASL morphology, and thus received greater acceptance over SEE1, which was actually more true to English phonology. Esperanto, Gestuno and International Signing

Esperanto created by Polish physician Ludwig L. Zamenhoff in 1887

Gestuno created by World Federation of the Deaf committee in 1973

International Signing is the spontaneous pidginization of signed languages that occurs at international deaf gatherings. Some instances of International Signing are based on Gestuno Suggested Activities
Make up a (pseudo) pidgin language of your own. Take the vocabulary of a spoken language (such as French, German, or Spanish) and put them in English word order. Change the pronunciation to American English speech patterns.

2.Find a guidebook for either SEE1 or SEE2 (or another Artificial Pidgin) and figure out how to express the following sentences using them:
a. Yesterday I saw five goats.
b. I finished eating two hours before I swam.
c. The darkness of the coming night made us feel sheepish. Review Questions
1.How do natural pidgins develop?
2.What is the difference between a pidgin and a creole?
How are Esperanto and Gestuno similar to and different from pidgins?
4.When were Esperanto and Gestuno created?
5.How is International Signing different from Gestuno?
6.Which encoding mechanisms represent elements of English in manual/English Artificial Pidgins?
7.Which encoding mechanisms represent elements of ASL in manual/English Artificial Pidgins?
8.Who was the initial creator of American manual English codes?
9.What was the original name of the first American manual English code and what was it later changed to?
10.Why do manual English codes not actually encode English? Recited Reading and Transcription, change between written and non-written channels of the same language. Transliteration changes the language encoding system within the same channel, while Shadowing maintains the same language encoding system and the same language channel. Two distinctions of Shadowing include Mirroring and Processed Shadowing. Consecutive Transliteration of Monologic Discourse Consecutive Transliteration of Dialogic Discourse Simultaneous Interpretation of Dialogic Discourse Consecutive Interpretation of Monologic & Dialogic Discourse Extralinguistic Transcommunication: Elucidation Consecutive Elucidation of Monologic Discourse Consecutive Elucidation of Dialogic Discourse Transcommunication is any kind of mediation where one person communicates another person’s message to a third person. Source Texts are created by people other
than the transcommunicator.
Target Texts are created by the transcommunicator. Russian-English Transliteration Examples Bilingual Transcommunication:
Interpreting and Translating Interpreting is an interactive exchange of information between two languages in which the interpreter actively creates spontaneous target texts that maintain the information and intent of their respective variable source texts. Translation is the extensive review and evaluation of a fixed source text in one language and the creation of a fixed target text, in a different language, which maintains both the information and intent of the source text. Transcommunication Elucidation of Environmental Stimuli
human sneezes, animal growls, mechanical bells & tones, wind and thunder

Elucidation of Visual Gestural Communication
people wiping eyes, animals baring teeth, lights flashing, lightning

Elucidation of International Signing and Gestuno
Spontaneous gestures used with intent to communicate

Elucidation of Natural and Artificial Pidgins
Stabilized spoken or gestural communication within the first generation Extralinguistic Transcommunication
one side of the communication event did not use a language. 1) Recited Reading is the process of creating, within the same language, a spoken or signed target text from a written source text.

2) Transcription is the process of creating, within the same language, a written (fixed) target text from a spoken or signed source text. [the reverse of Recited Reading]

3) Transliteration is the process of creating a target text in a different language encoding system but within the same language and channel (written, signed, or spoken), as the source text.

4) Shadowing is the process of creating a target text in the same language encoding system and within the same language and channel (written, signed, or spoken), as the source text. Monolingual Transcommunication:
Shadowing & Transliteration Suggested Activities

Obtain a recording of various Sound Effects. Listen to several sound effects and think about how you would represent them to a deaf person by 1) describing the actions that generated each sound (e.g. shooting a gun), 2) describing the sounds themselves (e.g. pop, bang, boom) or 3) doing both. Practice representing each sound during the same time that the sounds are generated on the recording.

6.Obtain a recording of a silent film (or an action film). Watch several minutes of the action in the film, then think about how you would represent the visual information and the actions to a blind person. Practice representing the visual elements and actions during the same time that the actions are generated in the film. Click Here for a Charlie Chaplin Sample
www.youtube.com/watch?v=2x3VQ_yL_6w Review Questions
1.What are the definitions of Source Texts and Target Texts?
What label is used to describe extralingual transcommunication?
3.What four labels are used to describe monolingual transcommunication?
4.What two primary labels are used to describe bilingual transcommunication?
5.What are the two kinds of interpretations possible, based on the amount of time between the presentation of the source text and the creation of the target text?
6.What kind of translation results from the spontaneous interpreting of a fixed text?
7.What are the definitions of Fixed Texts and Spontaneous Texts?
8.What is the correct label for the ‘fixing’ of a spontaneous text?
9.What is the difference between interpreting and translating?
10.Provide an example scenario of a performed translation. Suggested Activities

Take a children’s story (with lots of pictures) and provide an elucidation of it that uses no more than five actual words or signs from any language. Use these words only to identify the actors or a few objects in the story. Use gestures, body posture, facial expressions to convey the actions of the characters, the plot, and any other details of the story.

2.Take one or two sentences from the US Constitution (in Appendix C) and transliterate them into two or three of the encoding systems described in chapter four. As an example, take the preamble and fingerspell the entire passage, then write it out in Braille (using dots instead of raised bumps), then write it out again using Morse code. Suggested Activities

Perform a recited reading of one of the dialogues that open each chapter in this book. Read the lines for Rasmus and Timoth as though they are having a heated argument. Read the lines again as though they are exhausted and can barely concentrate. Read the lines a third time as though they can hardly keep from laughing. Now find a partner who will perform the lines of one character while you perform the lines of the other and mix the approaches (for example, Rasmus might sound tired while Timoth seems to think everything is funny).

4.Look at Article I of the US Constitution (in Appendix C) and rewrite it so that it is clearly understandable but still completely accurate. Now take this rewritten version (which is an idiomatic shadowing of the source text) and use it as the basis for a translation into another language that you know. Ingram’s (1974) Model Ingram’s (1980) Model Llewellyn-Jones’ (1981) Model of Intentional Literal Interpreting Llewellyn-Jones’ (1981) Model of Inadequate Processing of Form Metaphors vs Models Metaphors compare one thing to another.
Models provide insight to the components. Three Distinct Metaphors:
• Helper
• Conduit
• Mediator Models of Transcommunication Gerver’s (1976) Model Moser-Mercer’s (1978) Model Cokely’s (1984) Model Llewellyn-Jones’ (1981) Model Colonomos’ (1997) Pedagogical Model Colonomos’ (2000) Model of Meaning Construction Colonomos’ (1997) Model of the Interpreting Process Kirchoff’s (1976) Model Colonomos’ (1992) Model of Literal Interpreting Options Llewellyn-Jones’ (1981) Model of Unintentional Literal Interpreting Review Questions
1. What are the three basic components of all of the models?
Which two models identify the interpreting process with distinct start and stop points?
Ingram’s models identify the consumers of interpreting within the model. Which other model also identifies the consumers as part of the process?
What are the seven stages in Cokely’s model?
What are the five main components identified in Colonomos’ model?
6.Language, Culture, Affect and Content are elements of which part of Colonomos’ models?
7.Identify three of the factors influencing the analysis of source texts and the production of target texts in Colonomos’ model of the Interpreting Process?
8.What are the two results that Colonomos predicts for Product-based approaches to interpreting?
9.What are the three results that Colonomos predict for Process-based approaches to interpreting?
10.What are the three explanations that Llewellyn-Jones offers for interpretations which are not idiomatic? Suggested Activities 1. Take the models from any two different authors and compare them. What labels identify similar (or identical) components? What elements are present in one model but missing in the other?

2. Create your own model of the interpreting process. What are the essential elements that you will include? Minimum Requirements for
An Interpreting Model Review
Communicating Minds Within a Shared Physical Setting Review
Linguistic Communication Within a Physical Setting Moving Communication from the Mind to a Linguistic Text Reduced Model of Communication via a Linguistic Text Potential Processing Levels
& Transcoding Review
Processing Levels Between Source & Target Texts Moving Communication from a Linguistic Text to the Mind Reduced Model of Direct Interactive Communication Reduced Model of Translation Consecutive Transcommunication of Dialogic Discourse Reduced Model
of Dialogic Simultaneous Transcommunication A More Detailed Model
of Monologic Simultaneous Transcommunication Source Text’s 8 Cs Compared to the Target Text’s 10 Cs Simplified Model of Teamed
Simultaneous Transcommunication of Monologic Discourse Reduced Model of Relayed
Simultaneous Transcommunication of Monologic Discourse Review Questions What are the main components of communication upon which all five models are based?
2.What are the primary components of the Sociolinguistic Frames?
3.What are the eight components of a Linguistic Text?
4.What is the minimum number of participants (or Minds) involved in Transcommunication?
5.What two additional components of Linguistic Texts are related to the creation of a target text (beyond the eight Cs of a source text)?
6.What prediction is made about attempting to simultaneously create Target Texts at higher levels than the Source Text comprehension?
7.What prediction is made about attempting to simultaneously create Target Texts at equal levels to the Source Text comprehension?
8.What prediction is made about attempting to simultaneously create Target Texts at exactly one level lower than the Source Text comprehension?
9.What prediction is made about attempting to create Target Texts consecutively with the Source Text?
10.Sequence the following types of transcommunication from highest expected target text processing to lowest: Consecutive, Relayed, Solo Simultaneous, Teamed Simultaneous, and Translation. Suggested Activities 1.Videotape your own transcommunication work. Be sure that the recording documents both the source text and your production of the target text. Analyze the source text for the following variables:
1) its channel (spoken language, written language, signed language),
2) its clarity of articulation (phonemics and phonology),
3) its pace or rate of information,
4) its lexical content or vocabulary,
5) its grammatical accuracy,
6) its cohesion across the duration of the text,
7) the confidence of its creator, and
8) various cultural factors regarding values and beliefs.

2.Continuing with the text used for Activity #1, use the Ten Cs Target Text Evaluation Form (in Appendix D) to analyze your target text for the following variables:
1) its channel (spoken language, written language, signed language),
2) its clarity of articulation (phonemics and phonology),
3) its pace or rate of information,
4) its lexical content or vocabulary,
5) its grammatical accuracy,
6) its cohesion across the duration of the text,
7) the confidence of its creator (you),
8) various cultural factors regarding values and beliefs,
9) Comparable Affect (style and register) to the source text, and
10) Correctness or accuracy of the target text as compared to the source. Five More Models Review
Communicating Minds Within a Shared Physical Setting Review
Communicating Minds Within a Shared Physical Setting Review
Communicating Minds Within a Shared Physical Setting Communication is
One Mind's Perception
of a message that
Another Mind has Expressed Animal
Communication Human
Communication Language 1.2 Background KnowledgeSuccess in communicating the mind’s intention will depend on the person’s Background Knowledge, which includes the following four kinds of knowledge:1) Knowledge of how to communicate,2) Knowledge of what can be communicated,3) Knowledge of others who are able to understand the communication, and4) Knowledge of how the physical environment will impact the communication. Expressive Modalities:
There are five basic expressive modalities of communication:
image, odor, sound, taste, and texture.

Perceptive Modalities:
There is a one-to-one correspondence to perceptive modalities.All are related to the five senses:
hearing, sight, smell, taste, and touch. Physical Context
is the setting for the communication.
It surrounds the expression and perception of communication Not all communication seems to serve a purpose,but in general terms, communication accomplishes goals. Meaning Versus Communication

Meaning is independent of Communication. What one mind intends need not coincide with the other mind’s understanding.

Expression/Perception of communication are distinct from meaning. The words that are used in communication don’t actually contain any meaning at all: it is the perceiver’s mind that determines a meaning. Pragmatics - Doing Things Through Communication Channels and ModesLanguage Channels are the three basic ways of expressing language:signed, spoken, and written.Three expressive communication Modalities are used to express language:image, sound, and texture. Timoth’s eyes looked up from the book and toward Rasmus “Encoding systems... does that mean secret codes?”Happily Rasmus replied, “Maybe you don’t realize that the question you just asked used an encoding system.”In disbelief, Timoth asked, “All communication uses encoding systems?” Timoth’s eyes closed as Rasmus waited.Some moments later Timoth continued, “Give me an example.”Moving toward the desk, Rasmus asked, “Let’s start with this. What would you say this is?” Easily, Timoth answered, “A desk!”Smiling, Rasmus continued, “Now, what is the French word for this same object?”Slowly this time, Timoth responded, “Rasmus... it has been years since I studied French... but the word ‘bureau’ comes to mind.”Again, Rasmus smiled, “Exactly, but what comes to your mind when you hear that word ‘bureau’ in an English conversation?”Gazing at the ceiling, Timoth answered, “The Government.”Emptying a pack of playing cards onto the desk, Rasmus continued, “Every language uses encoding systems which are known to the people who make up the culture surrounding that language. Within one language and culture you instantly know a word to have one primary meaning but the same word can have a different, unrelated meaning to another language and culture.” Rasmus began sorting the cards on the desk. “I can use just about anything as an encoding system, signs, speech, written symbols. If we share the same system, I can even use these playing cards to encode a message.”In less than three minutes, Rasmus had rearranged the playing cards into a stack and handed them to Timoth. “Now, how many letters are there in English? How could the number of playing cards represent that number of letters? Go through these in order and write down your observations.”Slowly Timoth looked through the cards. “A pack of playing cards has fifty-two cards, which is the same as twenty-six times two. So playing cards could give you two of every letter in the alphabet... but I’d have to use one group of cards for the first thirteen letters and one group for the second thirteen letters. I could use Black cards for ‘A’ through ‘M’ and use Red cards for ‘N’ through ‘Z’.”Inching along the edge of the desk, Timoth placed each card in order “Spades... 9 of spades, 7 of hearts, 6 of diamonds, 7 of diamonds, 9 of clubs, King of clubs, 5 of spades, 6 of spades, 2 of hearts, 5 of hearts, Queen of clubs, 8 of diamonds, 3 of spades, 8 of clubs, joker.” Timoth stopped. “What do I do with a joker?”Nodding, Rasmus reached for the remaining cards, “It seems that you already know... you stop.”Carefully, Timoth read the message: “Encoded message seems to be ‘Its time for lunch’, right?”Opening the desk drawer, Rasmus placed the cards inside and replied, “Fun, isn’t it?”Doorknob in hand, Timoth asked, “Is there any limit to how we can encode messages?”Exiting the room, Rasmus declared “Limits? There are many ways to encode a message,but you have to look for them. You never know what hidden messages you’ll find!”
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