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Transcript of TWPSG7A
New France:Government and hierarchy
The fur trade
For about 2 and a half centuries the fur trade was a major business in North America. One of the main reasons New France was established was that fur was needed in Europe. One of the reasons people expanded.It was towards areas with more furs.The main way that the peoples of New France befriended the First Nations was through the fur trade.One of the biggest companies of the trade was the Hudson's bay company. The fur trade was started first when Jacques Cartier first landed in North America, hoped for gems and minerals but discovered furs and fish. Soon in 1600 the fur trade became a lot more popular when the people found out that the beaver pelts was important for their fur hats. The fur trade slowed down in modern times when people realized that these animals had to be protected, if they continued hunting the animals will become extinct. So the demand and market for these real furs had declined significantly. As the market for fake furs has increased.
The first nations
The first nations were the original inhabitants of north America,AKA Canada/ the US.
the first nations were first met by explorers in the 1600s when they accidentally found Canada and discovered these peoples, the First Nations are commonly called indians, a mistake by the original explorer, Christopher Columbus, when he thought he was at India and these people were Indian. The first nations had a more primal way of life, wearing leather clothes, they also had a different religion than other europeans with the catholic religion. The First Nations believed in spirituality and Spirit Animals, when the Jesuits came they tried to convert the First Nations because they thought that their religion was foolish. The First Nations also played a major role in most wars, the seven years war and the war of 1812,one of the two most greatest leaders of these people was tecumseh.He played a major role for the first nations in the war of 1812.
The seven years' war(1756-1763)and related.
Upper and lower Canada
The thirteen colonies/America
The thirteen colonies was originally a british colony on the Atlantic coast of North America.The thirteen original colonies were:Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina and Rhode Island.Each of the colonies had a slightly different governing system, the colonies decided to rebel against the british and become independent around 1700 when the british had to recover from the war of 1812 by raising and placing new taxes. Which aggravated the british in the thirteen colonies a lot. The Boston tea party was an act against the new taxes. The thirteen colonies eventually decided to become independent in 1776, right after the american revolution. The first US president was George Washington, a general that played a major role for the thirteen colonies.
Tom,smith and Tamar stein "Canadian history Grade 7"
Don Mills: Pearson education Canada.(Pearson Canada Inc.)
In the 1530s France sent explorers to find new lands. Eventually they found North America, France soon sent settlers there to set up colonies. But they didn't know anything about it. These colonies would eventually become New France. Soon, they discovered there were the first nations and had set up a trade system.Soon the Jesuits would sent missionaries to New France to set up schools for boys and also to convert First Nations to the catholic religion. One of the first settlements of these Jesuit priests were the Sainte-Marie among the Huron. it was a small village/town with a small population of Jesuit priests and a number of people who were the catholic religion and believes in god. The Jesuits in New France tried to convert the native americans' religion. This made many First nations furious and attack the Jesuits.This made the Jesuits realize that this is not going to be easy. Asides from the Jesuits there were the Ursuline nuns. These people came to New France also to convert the First nations.But they had not set up schools for boys but schools for girls. Teaching them the knowledge required to become nuns,wives,or mothers. Both the Jesuits and Ursuline nuns
thought that the first nations religion and beliefs were wrong and dismissed First Nations'
legends and lessons as foolish. This was also one of the reasons that the First nations were
furious at them. The First nations were mad at the Jesuits and nuns that they treat their spirit religion this way.
New France had a decently complex civil hierarchy. There was the king,the top dog of France and new France. Then there was the viceroy. The second most powerful person in new france's terms. Then there was the Minister of the navy and the sovereign council. With the same civil status as the Governors and the Intendants. Finally there was the captain of the militia,seigneurs and the citizens. The most lower class in New France's hierarchy. One of the middle class people were the seigneurs. people who won the king's favor and had been given seigneuries in New France. These were large areas of land often with a length of 10 kilometers and width of 5 kilometers and was beside a river. The seigneur would keep a part of the land. But would give the rest to farmers to settle. The seigneurs also had power over the taxation of the inhabitants on the seigneurie.
The seven years' war was a brutal war starting from 1756 ending 1763. Also known as the french and indian war in the US.The war had an early beginning in 1753-1755 when the british attacked the french and captured their ships.One of the most commonly known battles was the battle of the plains of Abraham . Both New France and Britain's commanders,James Wolfe and Louis-Joseph de Montcalm died in this battle. The british's battle strategy was the thin green line. British soldiers forming three lines and takes turns firing. This gave the british an advantage in firing speed and damage so the british drove the Marquis de Montcalm back thus,New France was captured. In this war both countries suffered heavy losses, but the british had more to gain by capturing New France. The treaty of Paris was signed in 1763, ending the war with the French. But this does not affect the Native Americans. After the war ended with France, a new war with the Native Americans began with the First Nations being happy with the british policies,for the ohio people it was allowing the french to extend their territories, this war was not successful and ended with hundreds of thousands of First Nations dying mostly from diseases.
During the constitutional act in 1791, two Canadas were formed. One being upper Canada,now known as Ontario. The two Canadas were named Upper and Lower for their positions to the Headwaters(a tributary stream of a river close to or forming part of its source.)(copied from dictionary).Though these two Canadas were both in british controlled Upper Canada consisted of mainly English speaking inhabitants. While Lower Canada,now as Quebec, had a larger population of french speaking Inhabitants. In Lower Canada there was a Seigniorial system. Where there was a landowner who the king gave plots of land to and farmers had settled on these lands. While the capital of Upper Canada was Newark AKA Niagra AKA Niagra on the lake AKA York AKA Toronto. Later on during the act of union in 1840, Upper and Lower Canada merged to become the province of Canada. But was later divided again to form the provinces Ontario and Quebec.
The loyalists of Upper Canada
The war of 1812 summary
The Jesuits and Ursuline nuns
The war of 1812 was a war starting from 1812 and ending at 1815. one of the most famous people at the time and still famous now was Napoleon Bonaparte. He was the emperor of france from 1804 to 1814,he was again emperor in 1815, the time of the war of 1812, but sadly he was banished to some island. The US president at the time was James madison, with about 500k soldiers and militia in total, the US overpowered the british's 20k. But the british managed to hold them back due to heroes like Sir Isaac Brock and Tecumseh, the First Nations also played a major role in the war,but they were both killed in action. Both sides suffered major losses. But the British had the most losses with about 10k injured or dead,(that's about half of their troops) but the US had bigger losses, about 20k injured or dead. The two nations were at war because of british political reasons. The US declared war on june 1,1812, because of the terribleness they thought of the british rules and also for other political reasons.But the british was also dealing with the french, the Napoleonic war. The war soon ended in 1815 with the thirteen colonies soon becoming the US and independant.
Asides from the acadians in the 1600s and the 1700s, another big immigration was made by the british, more specifically,the loyalists! These loyalists originally went to the thirteen colonies,but was upset that the thirteen colonies were against the crown so they decided to move to upper Canada, but most went to nova scotia. Some black and aboriginals were also given land for being loyal to the british. This happened when the american revolution happened in 1775, if the british was loyal to the crown in the thirteen colonies, they could be executed, the thirteen colonies was becoming independent. Right after the american revolution, nova scotia was populated significantly with 20000 people moving through a time period of about 1 year. New Brunswick was created because there was a massive population in nova scotia and new Brunswick. Some people in modern days can still trace their roots back to the loyalists.
The New World
During the 1500s explorers were frequently traveling to the orients(China,India)to do this they had to go through a dangerous journey,this made many explorers want to find a better route,one day,a man named Christopher Columbus was hired by King Afonso V of Portugal to go in the other direction instead of going the same way. This was a major part of the discovery of north America. When Christopher Columbus discovered North America, he thought it had been India, thus had named the First Nations indians. Soon other explorers like Samuel de Champlain came and
started trading,others looked for precious minerals to make them rich.
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