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Congo Free State - Belgian Congo

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Jeroen Van den Bosch

on 14 March 2016

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Transcript of Congo Free State - Belgian Congo

Political History
of Congo

History
Theory
90.000 BC
2500 BC
500
1500
1850
Politics
World
Drier climate
Prehistoric Migration
Tools
Pygmies
In Europe - Fall of the Roman Empire

Bantu tribes migrate deeper southwards
500 AD they have crossed the forest
1000 AD they occupy the whole Congo
1700 AD they covered South Africa

Agrarian revolution

Iron Tools (400 AD)

New ways of communication

Changes in diet
Kingdom of Kongo
(1150?-1665)
1780
King's personal seal, year 2, third month of inundation, day 15. Royal decree to the Sole Companion, lector-priest and chief of desert rangers, Harkhuf.

The matter of your letter has been noted, which you sent to the king at the Palace, to the effect that you have returned safely from Iyam together with the army that was with you.

You said in this letter of yours that you have brought all sorts of great and beautiful gifts, which Hathor, the mistress of Nubia, has granted to the spirit of my throne name, who lives for ever.

You said in this letter of yours that you have brought a pygmy, of divine dances, from the land of the horizon-dwellers, like the one that the seal-bearer Bawerdjed brought from Punt in the time of king Isesi, and you said the like of him has never been brought back by any one who did Iyam in the past.

It is true that you know how to do what your lord loves and praises, and it is true that you spend day and night planning to do what your lord loves and praises and commands. His Majesty will provide many splendid rewards, so as to benefit your son's sons for all time, so that people will say when they hear what my Majesty has done for you, "Can anything equal what was done for Harkhuf when he returned from Iyam?"

Come north to the Palace at once ! Drop everything - hurry and bring that pygmy you have brought, alive, happy and well, for the divine dances, to gladden the heart, to delight the heart of the king who lives for ever ! When he goes down with you the boat, get trusty men to stand around him on the gangplank - don't let him fall in the water !

When he goes to bed at night, get trusty men to lie all round him in his hammock. Inspect ten times a night ! My Majesty longs to see this pygmy more than all the treasures of Sinai and Punt !

If you arrive at the Palace and that pygmy is with you, alive, happy and well, my Majesty will do greater things for you than was done for the seal-bearer Bawerdjed in the time of Isesi, because my Majesty so wishes to see that pygmy.

Orders have been given to the chiefs of the New Towns and the overseer of priests to furnish supplies from every depot and every temple under their charge. No exception has been made for this.
First contact
Slave
trade
The Scramble for Africa
Tippo Tip
Msiri
Al
Zubayr
The Afro-arabic slave traders
started building up their "empires" by 1850
traded in slaves, ivory, copper
had military advantage over the natives
trading => raiding (Tippo Tip, Msiri)
Arabic slave trade <=> Atlantic slave trade
Tippo Tip (1837-1905)
(Hamed ben Mohammed el-Murjebi)
Expanded his empire with eastern Congo
in 1884-1887
Msiri
Took over the ancient kingdom of the Lunda
Occupied the southwest of Katanga (1856-1891)
1885
Stanley's expeditions
Found Livingstone at Lake Tanganyika
Found the source of the Congo river
Crossed Central Africa from east to west
Brought home news about ivory and souls in need of saving
Leopold II
Leopold II wants a colony
1876: Association Internationale Africaine
1878: Hires Stanley
1885: Conference of Berlin
Against Slave trade
Securing Free trade
Buffer zone
Congo Free State
Al Zubayr
Little Control
Congo was private property
Most of the map was still terra incognita
Even borders were not set yet
Almost no colonial adminstration
The Beginning 1885-1890
Ivory,
white gold!
Politics
Economy
In 1897 50% of the world's ivory trade
came from Congo
Europeans took over the native
regional trade
Building an Army
Military
1885: Leopold II creates
the Force Publique
Officers: Europeans
Infantry: Zanzibaris,
merceraries from Nigeria and Liberia
Only at the end of 1885 first Congolese
soldiers (mostly Bangala)
1890
First missionaries were international
Christian values
Monogamy
'core family <=> tribal family
1886: Leo XIII
"orphans"
Religion
Social changes
'Boys'
'Menagères'
Catechist
Double loyalty
Breaking promises
Leopold's 3 promises
Fight the slave trade
Garantee Free Trade
Not borrow money from
the Belgian goverment
After 1890 he will
break all 3 of them
Bankruptcy <=> Free Trade
Begged money from the Belgian gov.
Invested in a railroad
Confiscated all land
Arabian Campaigns 1891-1894
Msiri
Tippo Tip
South Sudan
Mutiny
Rebellion
Introduction
Timeline:
First expeditions
Congo Free State
Belgian Congo
Indipenda
Zaire
Rwandian Genocide
DRC
Great African War
Today
Evolutions:
economics
politics
military
social changes
cultural changes
Political theories
International relations
thematic topics
slavery
warlords
rape
Angola
Rep. of the Congo
Central African Republic
Sudan
Uganda
Rwanda
Burundi
Tanzania
Zambia
DRC Geography
From 12th century
Central African kingdoms
end 15th century
First contact with Portuguese (Diogo Cão)
1641-1648 Dutch conquest and revolts
1671 Portuguese control of coastal area (Luanda, Benguela)
1885 Colonization
1961-1975
Independece war
Four fractions:
UNITA
MPLA
FNLA
FLEC
Civil war 1975-2002
MPLA<=>UNITA
Authoritarian regime
Contacts with Portuguese
Slave trade
Revolts (Dutch support)
Savorgnan de Brazza
French control
Nationalism
André Matswa
13-15 August 1960 Independence
1963 Military Junta
1968 People's republic of Congo
1992 Multiparty system
1997-1999 Civil war
Authoritarian regime
First contact: Afro-Arabian traders (early 19th century
After 1850 raids of slave traders and collaberation of local rulers
1891-1894 French colonization
1958 more autonomy
13 August independence
Two fractions
Abel Goumba
David Dacko
Dacko becomes president (French support
Dec. 13 1965 Military junta led by Jean bedel Bokassa
1979 Operation Barracuda
(Dacko president again)
1981-1985 Military regime
led by Kolingba
international pressure
1993 free elections
Ange-Félix Patassé
ethnic tensions rise
1998 second term Patassé
2001 unsuccessful coup
2002 Bozizé coup
New constitution
Fair elections
Bozizé president
Two parts
Tanganyika
Zanzibar
Tang. German
Zanz. Britisch
After WWI both British
1962 Independence
1964 Union of Tang. & Zanz.
"TAN-ZAN-ia"
Nyerere
African Socialism
1995 free elections
North Rhodesia
(Cecil Rhodes)
Rep. Zambia 1964
Kaunda
African Socialism
1991 Chiluba
2002 Myanawasa
2008 Banda
1830 Arab traders
1860 First British explorers
1888 British Colony
1962 Independence + dem.
1966 power struggle between
Obote and Muteesa II
1967 republic
1971-77 military regime by Idi Amin (resistance NRA)
1985 Tito Okello Coup
Nairobi peace agreement
NRA takes over in 1986
Musevini president
Still resistance in the north
1821-85 Modern Egypt occupation
1885-99 Mahdist rule
1899-1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
1956 Indepence
1955-72 First Sudanese war
Addis Abeba agreement 1972
1985-1991 Second Sudanese war
2003-? Darfur Genocide
2005 Nairobi Peace Agreement
2005-today Chad-Sudan war
2011 South Sudan Referendum
Cathegorization
Genocide/Politicide/
Ethnocide
Ideological
Pragmatic
Progressive
Reactionary
Developmental
Retributive
Hegemonic
Dekulakization (1929-1933)
Holocaust (Shoah) (WWII)
Herero-genocide (1904)
Biafran war and the Igbo-genocide
(1966-67)
Rwanda
first (Tutsi) genocide 1963-64
Second Tutsi genocide 1994 (genocide on both sides)
Definition: Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group.
Lemkin, 1948

=> Does not include political groups
=> Does not include cultural groups
First classification:
Genocides of:
colonization
decolonization
purification
Classes of violent Conflict
SCALE
Resistance
Yes
No
Small
Large
Skirmish
Massacre
War
Genocide
The Railroad
Matadi-Leopoldville
Construction process
Years
2 (1892)
3 (1893)
9 (1898)
Km
8
37
400
Casualties
900 afr. 42 eur.*
(-)
2000**
* After 18 months of construction
** Only after 1895 did they use Congolese workers
• Anversoise (a rubber company) got a area of rainforest of 160.000 km² (two times Ireland)
• ABIR (Anglo-Belgian Indian Rubber Company)
• The Crown domain (250.000 km², or ten times Belgium) was exploited by the king personally.
• Company of Kasai
• Company of Katanga
• Company of the great lakes
Concession companies
Year
1891
1896
1901
Ton
100
1.300
6.000
Rubber export
The catastrophe of Red Rubber
Col. North
ABIR
KASAI
Anversoise
European Agents
Sentries
Concession companies
Labour forces
migration
pandemics
slavery
mutilation
sexual assault
torture
Genocide
or not?
The end of
the Free State
1900-1908
Morel
Casement
1905 inspection commission
Diogo Cão
Force an idea on society
Transform society
Killing those until the ideological project is finished
Limited aims
no 'big' idea
once the aims are achieved and the people are
not a threat, the killing stops
1900
1908
Belgian Congo
1908-1920
Changes in Belgium
Colonial Charter
Minster of Colonies
Colonial Council
Portfolio
New administration
But still:
No representation
No autonomy
No better situation
Fighting disease
Congo Free State
Liverpool school of medicine
"Lazaretten"
Experimental drugs
Belgian Congo
Institute of Tropical medicine in Antwerpen
Medical passports
Hospitals
Containing the epidemic
Bureau international
d' ethnographie
Created in 1905
Anthropological research
Questionnaire (202 questions)
Utilitaristic
Tribe Cathegorization
Social Changes
Sense of belonging
became absolute
Bigger ethnical
groups were lost
stereotypes
ascribed Identity
A geological scandal!
Industry
Gold
Diamonds
Copper
Coal
Uranium
Agriculture
Tabacco
Cacao
Rubber
Coffee
Palm oil
Gold mines
Kilo-
Moto
Copper in Katanga
Union Minière du Haute
Katanga (UMHK)
Société Internationale Forestière
et Minière du Congo (Forminière)
Compagnie du Chemin de
Fer du Bas-Congo (BCK)
Problems:
extraction
labor force
more roads
New cities
e.g. Elisabethville
Industrialization
Start of the money
economy
Plantations
Huilderies
du Congo
Belge (HCB)
Forced labor
Bad working
conditions
Moving villages
The East African Campaign
World War I
04/08/1914 Belgium attacked
15/08/1914 Germans invade Congolese
territory
1915 Germans try to conquer the
gold-mines of Kilo-Moto
General Von Lettow-Vorbeck
The "Ghost of the Bush"
Guerrilla-tactics
Undefeated
The East African Campaign
• Cameroon
• North-Rhodesia
• East German Africa
The Force Publique
goes to war
Mimi
Toutou
15.000
Troups
Gen. Tombeur
1800
Leopoldville
Elisabethville
Stanleyville
Congo
Lualaba
1921
Consequences of the war
Religious protest
Marie aux Léopards
Industrialization and
war economy
Stagnation social programs
Sleeping disease &
Influenza (Spanish flu)
Segregation
New mandate-territories
Belgian Congo
1921-1939
Simon Kimbangu
The bad social-economic situation
made people search for salvation
most found it in religion
! Not political
! Not against christianity
2000
1950
The Rebellion of the Pende
Loango and Kasai river
Mostly employed in the
palm oil sector
Prices fell
Paycheck stayed the same
Religious revolt
Tupelele (The dwellers)
"Mundele Funji"
(Matemu a Kelenge)
Get rid of everything 'White'
1931
Rural not Urban Protest. Why?
City life
Conditions improved drastically:
better housing, hospitals, diet, etc.
Cities grew
Kinshasa

Elizabethville
25.000 (1920)

16.000 (1923)
50.000 (1929)

33.000 (1929)
Rural Flight
Generation of Natives born in the cities
Supervision of the Colonial Trinity
Cité indigène
extra coutumier
Church
Capital
Government
Invisible
Color Bar
First Political voice
Paul Panda
Farnana
Union Congolaise
W.E.B. Du Bois
Political demands
1868
-
1963
1888
-
1930
1940
World War II
and aftermath
1940-1955
Belgium:
May 20 1940
What should
Congo do?
Force Publique
Five campaigns
Belgian
Congo
Ethiopia
Somaliland
Eritrea
Nigeria
Libya
Ethiopean campaign
1941
Sayo
Lagos
1942
Contact with
British troops
Ethiopean
Lagos
Egypt
Palestine
Birma
Uranium
Katangese
uranium
used
for A-bombs
Marshall plan
Nuclear plants
Airports
Industrialization
War economy
Finished goods
Prices rose
cloth
medicine
tools
Egypt
1940-1945
OperationTorch
Kasai
Katanga
Baskongo
Orientale
Equateur
Kivu
Social protest
Rubber !
1939

1944
1142 ton

11.337 ton
BAD memories
Poverty
Frustration
Nov. 1941 miners in Manona

Feb. 1944 Luluaburg Mutiny

Spring 1944 Kitawala in Kivu

Nov. 1945 Dockworkers &
workers in Matadi and
Leopoldville
Distrust between
black & white
Recruits
6 months => 12
After the war
Congo more self-conscious
Changing global perception
"model colony"
New elite = évolués
Cities <=> Countryside
Keeping up appearances
Visit: King Boudewijn I
Why Congo?
2000 BC
Bantu-migration
Myths!
Symbiosis
Causes
Social order
Yum
Plantain
1000
1000: Authoritarian Revolution
11-12 C: origins of Kongo and Teke kingdoms
13 C: origins of Ndongo kingdom
1480: First contact with the Portuguese
14-15 C: origins of Luba and Lunda kingdoms
Congo is taken up in globalization
First contact with Portuguese
Nzinga Nkuwu (Jaôa)
Nzinga Mbemba (Afonzo 1)
His son => Vatican
Diogo (start Ndongo-Kongo war)
Berbando (killed in by Ndongo)
Henrique (killed by Teke)
Alvaro (fled from Yaka)
Change FP Portuguese
1506-43

1545-61
1561-7
1567-8
1568-87
1571
Impact of European contact
New crops: mais, manioc
Manufactured goods: luxury, firearms
New trade routes, currency
Congo became part of the global economy
Trade fostered political integration
State building: Comparison Kongo, Luba, Lunda
Vili
Yao, Bisa,Pombieros
Impact: Trade, depopulation, inwards drive. When slave trade ceased to be a royal monopoly it led to desintegration
Imbangala
Military parasitism
Kilombo
Full transcript