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The Battle of Shiloh
Transcript of The Battle of Shiloh
By Donn Boddie
and Brooks Lalley
Also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing
The word "Shiloh is Hebrew and means "place of peace", however this battle was quite the opposite.
Commanders In this Battle:
General Don Carlos Buell
born and died: March 23, 1818- November 19, 1898.
born in Ohio
highest ranks: Major General
Main Battles- Shiloh (1862), Corinth (1862), Perryville (1862).
Worked with Grant to form a stronger army over the Confederates
Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant
dates of birth and death: April 27, 1822- July 23, 1885.
Born in Ohio
Some of the battles he was a part of: Belmont (1861), Forts Henry and Donelson (1862), Shiloh (1862), Vicksburg (1863).
Known for his calm manner, as shown in Shiloh when he was surprise attacked and was able to stay cool and collected.
Albert Sidney Johnston
born on February 2, 1803- died on April 6, 1862
born in Washington, Kentucky
was the Chief of staff in the Black Hawk War
became part of the Revolution of Texas, had an important role in the Texan Army
was very persuasive
left the Union --> TO JOIN THE CONFEDERATES!!!!!!!!
Took Grant's army by suprise on April 6, 1862 with his fellow general- Beauregard, but they were not succesful.
He died during the battle of Shiloh
General P.G.T. Beauregard
born May 28, 1818- died February 20, 1893
born in Louisiana
Some battles he was a part of: Fort Sumpter (1861), First Bull-Run (1821), Shiloh (1862), Corinth (1862)
He was one of the Confederate Army's best officers, and one of it's first heroes
He honed his military skills during The Mexican War, and spent many years with the corps of engineers.
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Ok... so what happened?
The battle of Shiloh took place in only a two day span, the 6th and 7th of April 1862
, but in that short period of time, more Americans were killed or wounded than in all wars fought before that time,
and more than all the casualties of The Civil War combined until that time.
It was the 2nd greatest battle in the Civil War. In April 1862, the Confederate army launched a surprise attack on Ulysses S. Grant's Union forces in Southwestern Tennesee.
They were succeeding at first, but the they were unable to hold their positions and were forced back.
The Battle of Shiloh resulted in a Union victory
This battle was a solemn reminder for both sides that
the war was not going to be quick and
easy as they thought.
-Albert Sydney Johnston was inclined to completely withdraw his forces and leave much of Tennesse to the Federals after the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson in February.
-they were to strike the Union before the arrival of Buell and his troops.
-Upon Grant's arrival to Pittsburgh Landing Johnston did withdraw his forces to reorganize (67,00 troops altogether).
-Johnston led his army to advance on April 3rd, however he was delayed by heavy rains which resulted in muddy roads--which also slowed down Buell's arrival.
-The Confederate army was able to attack the dawn of April 6th.
-The Confederacy fought with the intentions of driving away the Union forces from the river in the direction of Swamp Land near by, Owl's creek.
-Ulysses S. Grant was known for his lack of concern for the enemy during war, and it was shown during The Battle of Shiloh when his encampment at Pittsburgh Landing surrounded a church named Shiloh.
-here the Union army awaited the arrival of Buell while doing many drills instead of working on trenches.
-Grant wanted to capture Corinth. It was a rail center and if he captured it, it would give his army total control of the region.
-However, he was unaware of Johnston and his army of 55 thousand soldiers who were located 20 miles away.
Let's Talk Strategy...
Johnston's men were successful in an almost complete surprise attack. Grant learned a lesson during the Battle of Shiloh which he would most likely keep close to him during the Civil War: Lack of fortifications and preparations lead to a bloody and costly war for both sides.
However, the night of April 5th, Grant had sent a telegraph to Major Helleck containing the message: "I have scarcely the faintest idea of an attack being made upon us, but I will be prepared should such a thing take place." But commander William Sherman thought nothing of an attack.
Johnston and his right hand man Beauregard had no unified plan of an attack set out. Johnston believed the most intelligent strategy was to emphasize the attack on their right flank, conducting Union forces away from the Tennessee River, which was a valuable resource.
The Tennessee River was both a transportation device for supplies, and a route for retreat if needed. Johnston planned to fight in the front line with his men and leave Beauregard in the back to control supplies.
Meanwhile, Beauregard's plan was to attack in three waves to trap the Union forces against the Tennessee River.
The Confederate government was forced to equip it's soldiers with stocks of weapons that were seized from Federal armories that were located in the southern states.
For the most part, they were old smooth bore muskets of short range. They were notoriously inaccurate which happened to be a huge advantage for the Union army.
When a Confederate soldier didnt have this kind of weapon, they were forced to use whatever firearm they could find.The Confederate artillery was composed of the old style smooth bore cannon, which was of less range and accuracy than that of the Union.
The federal government managed to equip it's troops with the Minie style rifle muskets which were bought from Europe but manufactured in federal armories.
One of the Union's great advantages were that they had access to European markets and had their own manufacturing base.
This helped them with the production of canons.
The federal artillery was composed of rifled guns that fired shells.
Leading up to the battle...
Over the span of 6 months, Union troops worked their way up to Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. The state of Kentucky was in the hands of the Union and the Federalists controlled much of Tennessee, including the capital- Nashville.
At this time Grant already had two great victories- Fort Henry and Donelson. This forced Johnston to gather rebel forces that were scattered at Corinth in northern Mississippi. General; Ulysses S. Grant brought 42 thousand of his soldiers to meet up with Don Carlos Buell who had 20 thousand troops of his own.
Without a clearly defined plan of battle, Johnston's men formed confused lines while attacking, which took a toll on the effectiveness of the attack. Grant's men were unprepared and inexperienced. During the assault, some Union soldiers fled to the safety of the Tennessee River while the others were left to rebuild defensive lines. Confederate forces advanced until about noon, picking up rifles dropped by fleeing Union soldiers and abandoning their muskets on the way.
Union troops soon found themselves at a position behind a church named Shiloh. The Lost division of general Wallace, a union force, could have had the chance to "change the tide". His troops ended up behind the Confederate army; his plan was top launch an attack from behind until a message from Grant asking him why he had not followed his orders and to return to reinforce Sherman's division. Wallace then left to help Sherman, but arrived later in the night when his help was not needed.
In a brave attempt to lead the front line, Albert Sydney Johnston was mortally wounded in his leg and bled to death leaving his army in the hands of Beauregard. The chances of a complete Confederate victory went down when Buell's troops began arriving. That night, cries of wounded men on the battlefield could be heard by all. The first day was a Confederate advantage, resulting in a 2 mile retreat by Union forces.
During the night, Buell's men continued to arrive on the battleground of Shiloh giving the Union an advantage of 17,000 men by morning. Also, the Confederate army was not restocked during the night with soldiers or ammunition...
That morning it was the Union's turn to to take action, and responded with a quick counter-attack which at first seemed successful. The Confederate forces needed to reorganize afterwards. The Union proved to have greater power than they thought.
After a day of continuous retreat, the battle came to a stalemate and Beauregard had realized he was extremely outnumbered with almost 10,000 of his troops missing, injured, or dead. At this point, he decided to retreat to Corinth. However, the exhausted Union army didn't pursue them further than their camps. The Union ended up winning although the amount of their dead is considered no success.
The Aftermath of Shiloh
The loss of Albert Sidney Johnston was a huge blow to the Confederate cause at the time, as he was considered the most successful commander for the South.
Meanwhile, Ulysses S. Grant was blamed for the slaughter of his men, due to the lack of preparations and fortifications. Americans from the Union complained that the once great Grant should now be replaced.
On the battlefield, large trees were broken from shots, the ground torn apart, and the stench of death was pungent. Afterward, many soldiers who had participated dealt with sickness. This was the bloodiest battle to date.
Total: 110, 053
2,885 missing & captured
959 missing & captured
Result: The Union wins...
THANK YOU ALL FOR WATCHING!
WE HOPE YOU WERE ENLIGHTENED!
IT WAS A PLEASURE TEACHING YOU GUYS!
After this hard fought battle, soldiers were exhausted.
Not only did his death effect the outcome of Shiloh, but it effected the south throughout the entire war. President Davis referred to the loss of Johnston as "the turning point of Confederate fate".
Johnston and his men planned for an early morning surprise attack upon Union forces. It was 6 am in the gray dawn when the weather would allow the Confederates to make their offensive move. The army had spent the previous night preparing for battle by quietly setting up camps just two miles from those of the Union army and were undetected.
THE BATTLE OF SHILOH
By afternoon, some Union soldiers had established a line along a sunken road called, "The Hornet's Nest", and did not move until seven hours later en they had been surrounded by confederate troops.
THE CIVIL WAR
A federal patrol scouting the area that morning first spotted the confederate army approaching briskly towards their camps by Corinth road and rapidly closing the mile gap between the two forces. The confederate force found Union camps unfortified; Grant would later be extremely criticized for the lack of trenches and forts to protect his soldiers. Grant wasn't even present when the attack began!!
Now that you know the Circumstances, let's get into the action...
By Donn Boddie
and Brooks Lalley
but the cost of human lives those 2 days made Shiloh a true tragedy rather than a heroic victory
Henry Morton Stanley--
"Day broke with every promise of a fine day. Next to me, on my right, was a boy of seventeen, Henry Parker.
I remember it because, while we stood-at-ease, he drew my attention to some violets at his feet, and said, 'It would be a good idea to put a few in my cap. Perhaps the Yanks wont shoot me if the see me wearing such flowers, for they are a sign of peace.' 'Capital,' said I, 'I will do the same.'
We plucked a bunch and arranged the violets in our caps.
The men in the ranks laughed at our proceedings, and had not the enemy been so near, their merry mood might have been communicated to the army."
the war was devastating to Americans, and was not the "romantic test of personal courage that soldiers had imagined"...