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School to Prison Pipeline 1
Transcript of School to Prison Pipeline 1
The school-to-prison pipeline refers to policies and practices that push our nation's schoolchildren out of classrooms, and into the criminal justice system.
How does race affect the implications of the zero tolerance policy in CPS schools?
Encounters with the criminal justice system.
By: Ryan Brown, Brenda Corona, Katherine Griffin, Vanessa Lewis and Jazmyn Reyes
Over-representation of African American males in Exclusionary Discipline by Alicia Darensbourg
Education and Incarceration: Zero Tolerance Policies and the school to Prison-Pipeline by Nancy A. Heitzeg
The two readings that we focused on were:
U.S Department of Justice Statistics
The U.S Department of Justice Statistics reported that in 2006 the number of inmates in the state and federal prisons increased to 1 1/2 million from 2005
35% of them were African American males when African Americans only accounted for 12.4% of the US population in 2006.
Exclusionary Discipline and its Affects on Suspensions
Suspensions has increased among all students from 1.7 million in 1974 to 3.1 million in 2000.
In 2000, Although African Americans represented less than 17% of the student population, they were accounted for 34% of all suspension.
This means that African American males are more likely to get suspended 2 to 3 times more frequently than other races.
Research specifically suggest that African American males who are frequently suspended become academically disengage, increase association with deviant peers, become resentful to school personnel, and feel a sense of alienation.
Alternatives to Exclusionary Discipline (Darnesbourg Cont.)
To address the detrimental consequences of zero tolerance and exclusionary discipline on African American males, Fenning and Rose propose that educational stakeholders focus attention on factors present within the educational system that can derail the School to Prison-pipeline for African American males.
CPS Suspension Rates per School
Project NIA Arrest Rates
A project developed in 2009 in hopes of ending youth incarceration in Chicago
Found that African Americans were disproportionally arrested in CPS schools
75% of Arrests in or around CPS schools in 2012 came from African Americans; 20% Latinos; 4% White; 0.5% Asian, 0.5% other
1. Northside Colleg Prep High School: 3 suspensions
2. Simpson Academy High School: 37 suspensions
3. Walter Payton College Prep HS: 50 suspensions
4. Lane Tech College Prep HS: 79 suspensions
5. Whitney M Young Magnet HS: 100 suspensions
CPS Suspension Rate Data Sets Cont.
High Schools with lowest rates in 2013-2014 School Year:
CPS Suspension Rates By Race
2013-2014 School Year:
African American: 60,197
Native American/Alaskan: 211
Zero Tolerance Policy (Darensbourg Cont.)
The intention of the Zero Tolerance Policy is to provide a safe and secure learning environment in a fair and consistent manner. However, non-supporters argue that if the punishment is not consistency with the severity of the discipline infraction committed, then students fail to learn the subsequent consequences for their behavior.
The American Psychological Association developed a task force to examine the evidence of the effectiveness of the zero tolerance by the task force outlining major premises of zero tolerance and explored research to determine the accuracy of these assumptions.
Conducting Our Own Research
Existing data results and our survey results will determine if there is a definite correlation.
Permission From The School
Approval of the research study
What do we propose?
New discipline policies
Family involvement & extracurricular activities
More passionate & qualified teachers
Promotion of academic success vs. criminal treatment
Neighborhood crime rates
Qualified teacher determination
Risk & transitions - the risks of transitioning from putting more money into policing to putting more money into school materials that help students progress
Questions, concerns, comments?
-Follow 10 groups of freshmen from 10 different CPS schools for 4 years with a survey we created.
CPS Suspension Rate Data Sets
High Schools with highest rates in 2013-2014 School Year:
1. Steinmetz High School: 2914 suspensions
2. Hyde Park High School: 2661 suspensions
3. Farragut High School: 1875 suspensions
4. Harlon High School: 1479 suspensions
5. Fenger High School: 1452 suspensions
This data suggest that African Americans are 6 times more likely to be incarcerated than Non-African American males
52% who don't complete high school are incarcerated at least once by age of 30.
35% reported that behavior, academic problems ,and engagement were their reason for not completing high school.
The five major premises were violence warrants,removing students who violate rules from the school environment, school safety, inappropriate behavior, and security of students
Conclusions had suggested that zero tolerance policies are not well understood by the public and do not benefit the students it is designed to serve.
We suggest that the rigidity used when enforcing zero tolerance policies may affect African American males at higher rates due to the way they are viewed by school staff, their evidence of higher office referral rates and the disproportionate allocation of exclusionary discipline they receive from districts.
Not only do African America males suffer from less time in an academic classroom due to exclusionary discipline as a result of zero tolerance policies, but research also indicates that involvement in exclusionary discipline leads to feelings of alienation from school, elevated drop out rates, and alarming incarceration rates
Less harsh and more proactive alternatives like anger management programs, social skills training, Positive Behavioral Interventions, which help minimize school disruptions, positive discipline, and increasing the behavioral needs of students; are suggested to decrease the contribution of exclusionary discipline in the School to Prison Pipeline.
Education Or Incarceration: Zero Tolerance Policies and the School to Prison Pipeline
The Zero Tolerance policies provide direct mechanism by which students are removed from school by suspension/expulsions, pushed toward dropping out, charged in juvenile court, and routed into the prison pipeline.
The school to prison pipeline is a consequence of schools criminalized minor disciplinary infractions via zero tolerance policies, have a police presence at the school, and rely on suspensions and expulsions for minor infractions.
Schools and parent may not not consent to their child(ren) participating in the study
The participants might not be completely honest on the surveys
Participants might not complete the follow up survey or may move or no longer attend that high school anymore
The School-to-prison pipeline is detrimental to minority students and the CPS system should refocus their methods to help students thrive in school versus keeping them out of the classroom which often leads to encounters with the criminal justice system.