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The Universe

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Sasha Friddell

on 20 April 2013

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Transcript of The Universe

The closest star to our Solar System, Proxima Centauri, is 4.24 light-years away from Earth. It is a dwarf star in a trinary system.
These are some other nearby stars:
Barnard's Star is 6 light-years away
Wolf 359 is 7.8 light-years away
Lalande 21185 is 8.31 light-years away
Sirius is 8.6 light-years away The Universe by Sasha Friddell Introduction to the Universe Part One How Do We Know? Part Two http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2011/11/image/a/format/largre_web/
DK Universe the Definitive Visual Guide
DK History the Definitive Visual Guide
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation The Rose Galaxy (Arp 273) is made up of two colliding galaxies, called UGC 1810 (spiral) and UGC 1813 (below UGC 1810). The gravitational pull of the galaxies on each other distorted their shapes into that of a "rose". http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/eduoff/cas/cas2002/cas-projects/france_jupiter_1/ These are the eight planets of the Solar System, in proportion to each other. The first four planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) are mostly made of rock. The second four planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) are gas giants. Part Four Big Think Part Three Is there anybody out there? The last planet, Pluto, isn't technically a planet, but instead it is a ball of ice. Near our Solar System The largest planet in the solar system, Jupiter, is actually the second star in our solar system, but it was too small to ignite. Galaxies http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0907/devilstower_pacholka.jpg Earth is near the edge of a galaxy called the Milky Way, and sometimes, at night, we have a beautiful edge-on view. But since we are inside the Milky Way, we cannot see it fully, so the best impressions of our galaxy head-on are done by artists. This is not the Milky Way, but instead it is M81, a spiral galaxy very similar to the Milky Way. http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2011/11/image/a/format/large_web/ http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/galaxy/pr2007019a/1024_wallpaper/ Facts about the Milky Way: Historical Timeline 470 BCE Socrates Democritus He was the first person to hypothesize the existence of atoms
His studies led him to believe that different atoms had different attributes: water atoms were slippery, air atoms were lightweight and invisible, and iron atoms were heavy and shaped like hooks for strength
He also put much effort into the concept of democracy, hence the name 460 BCE Jump
time... The Milky Way is over 100,000 ly across.
The Milky Way contains over 200 billion stars.
The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy that has a supermassive black hole at the center.
Our galaxy is part of a galaxy cluster called "the Local Group".
It is the second-largest galaxy in the Local Group, behind the Andromeda Galaxy.
The Local Group is part of a supercluster called the Virgo Supercluster. The closest galaxy to the Milky Way is a dwarf galaxy called Canis Major Dwarf, and it is 25,000 light-years away. It is composed mostly of old, red stars.

Other nearby galaxies are:
Sagittarius Dwarf
Large Magellanic Cloud
Draco Dwarf
Andromeda Galaxy - 2.5 million light-years away http://techtweets.com.bd/en/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/galaxy-cluster.jpg Here's an example of a galaxy supercluster. Galaxy Facts Scientists have concluded that all large galaxies have a supermassive black hole at the center
Some spiral galaxies are circular - others have bars from which the arms trail, or are irregularly shaped
Galaxies often interact, which can mean colliding, distorting, and ripping each other
Elliptical galaxies are often the product of galaxy interactions
Stars found in elliptical galaxies are older than stars in other types of galaxies http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/entire/pr2008030f/large_web/ This is an enormous elliptical galaxy called M87. http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/entire/pr2002011a/1024_wallpaper/ This is another distorted galaxy known as the Tadpole Galaxy. The Tadpole Galaxy is another galaxy which has been distorted through collisions. Star Life-Cycle Step 1 http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/entire/pr2010013a/800_wallpaper/ A nebula (cloud of gas and dust) forms, which provides a perfect place for star formation. Step 2 The nebula then shrinks due to gravity, forming a spinning accretion disk (right) made from gas and dust, which surrounds a protostar. http://accretiondisks.blogspot.ca/2011/09/active-galaxy.html Step 3 Pressure rises in the core of the disk, until hydrogen atoms begin to fuse together to form helium atoms. At this point, the star is "born" and it begins to shine. http://accretiondisks.blogspot.ca/2011/09/active-galaxy.html Step 4 The gas and dust around the star condenses into planets, and the star's "solar wind" blows the remaining gas and dust away. The star enters its stable middle age (the main sequence). http://www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/keck-life-zone.html This is an artist's conception of planet formation. Underweight Stars If a star is half the Sun's mass or less, when it runs out of hydrogen it will expand slightly and then shrink. The star will continue to shrink into a white dwarf, then to a brown dwarf. Sun-like Stars If a star is of similar mass to our Sun, once it uses up all of its hydrogen it swells into a red giant. Then the outer layers float away and form a planetary nebula, and the remnant of the star becomes a white dwarf. Overweight Stars If a star is 3x the Sun's mass or larger, after it exhausts its hydrogen it will collapse inward. The smaller stars in this category will form a neutron star; larger stars will collapse into black holes and spew out matter in a violent explosion called a supernova. http://i1-news.softpedia-static.com/images/news2/M82-Reveals-Radio-Supernova-Explosion-Signature-2.jpg Particles Atoms Quarks Up and Down Names given to the kinds of quarks that make atoms
Down quarks have higher energy than up quarks Fundamental particles (wave packets!)
6 varieties
Make up protons and neutrons Baryons Protons Neutrons Protons: most simple baryons
Positively charged
In every atom from hydrogen to ununoctium
Two up quarks, one down Particles made from three quarks
Many different kinds Before I talk to you about particles, there is one thing I must tell you: atoms and other fundamental particles are not little spheres! Spheres are easier to envision, but it is a convenient (and incorrect) way to view the real deal. Here is the truth: Particles are actually waves You may think that this is impossible, but it is very true. Even though they may seem like microscopic ping-pong balls, they are actually "wave packets". Wave packets are waves which are, so to speak, bunched up in the middle and fade to nothing at the edges. http://www2.hesston.edu/Physics/HeisenbergJake/WavePacket.JPG http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Wave-particle.jpg Higher Energies Higher energy quarks do exist
Modern universe is too "cold" for them
They were around in smaller, hotter earlier universe
Can be created for a very short time in particle accelerators Also very common baryons
Neutrally charged
Unstable when not stuck to a proton
In almost every atom from deuterium to ununoctium
Two down quarks, one up Electrons Electrons are negatively charged and are sizeless
They possess angular momentum (spin), mass
When electrons are free, they are in wave packet form
Electrons are part of the lepton group (like quarks), and they have heavier counterparts called muons and taons
Muons and taons are unstable and decay into electrons + other particles, so they are not often seen
They are mainly seen in particle accelerators, and by cosmic rays Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 AD Johannes Kepler He created mathematical laws of planetary motion
He derived the mathematical relation between the length of the planet's year and its distance from the sun
This is important because if you track a planet in the sky for a long time, you can figure out how far away it is, regardless of its mass
Those laws were partly based on the theories of Nicolaus Copernicus
He also helped to improve telescope designs 1571 AD 1564 AD Galileo Galilei He was a strident supporter of heliocentrism, (which is the Earth orbiting the Sun)
He concluded that the rotation of the Earth caused the tides, and, using his telescope, found out that the moon was pitted and cratered, not a perfect sphere
His work was highly based on that of Nicolaus Copernicus The Future! Sir Isaac Newton 1642 AD He was the first person to ever be knighted for scientific work
He derived the mathematical foundation of Newton's laws of motion, Newton's universal laws of gravitation, geometric optics and calculus
He laid the scientific groundwork for 3 centuries of discovery
He also wrote more about the Bible than science Albert Einstein He published over 300 scientific papers
Most famous work: E=MC
E=MC means that mass and energy are two types of the same thing, and this discovery led directly to the atomic bomb and atomic energy
He developed general and special relativity, which proves that there is no preferred location or time in the universe, which showed that the Earth and the Sun are not the center of the universe, and that space and time can both be bent, stretched and compressed Niels Bohr 1885 AD Edwin Hubble He noticed that light from some galaxies was more red than it should have been. He called this "redshift"
He discovered that there was a direct relation between a galaxy's distance away from us and the amount of redshift: more redshift = farther away
He saw this in every direction in the sky and concluded that it meant the universe was expanding
Einstein at first refused to believe that the universe was expanding 1889 AD 1879 AD Werner Heisenberg He received the Nobel Prize for his many contributions to physics. These are some of the things he has worked on:
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, concerning the location and momentum of wave packets
Quantum Mechanics, which is derived from two places: Werner Heisenberg's Matrix Mechanics and Erwin Schrödinger's Wave Mechanics
Matrix Mechanics is the purely mathematical way to look at electrons, while Wave Mechanics is a description of electrons which can be visualized
Without his discoveries, many things would not have been invented. 1901 AD What is my big think? The Drake Equation N= the number of detectable civilizations in the Milky Way
R*= the rate of suitable stars being formed = 1 per year
fp= the fraction of those stars with planets = 1/2
ne= the number of habitable planets per solar system = 3
fl= fraction of suitable planets that actually have life = 1
fi= fraction of life-bearing planets that develop intelligence = 1
fc= fraction of civilizations whose technology produces a detectable footprint (for example, radio broadcasts) = 1/10
L= length of time the civilizations release detectable signals = 1,000,000 years
Based on Frank Drake's guesses, N=150,000 out of 200 billion stars in our galaxy Places Life Could Be Mars
Gliese 581 g Clues Bacteria Archaea DNA Messages to the Stars If you have been wondering... #1: Could we ever figure out how the universe began?
#2: Is it a currently relevant issue?
#3: How would it impact society? Could we find out how the universe began? Is it a currently relevant issue? Against: For: At this time, we have more important priorities, like curing cancer.
There is not enough research money to go around.
This will not help the economy quickly enough. Humans can truly know the origin of everything.
People can get jobs at particle accelerators and other scientific institutions.
We can accumulate more knowledge.
More knowledge is always a benefit.
Influential inventions always come from scientific discoveries. http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_mduck6RksO1rl33v7o1_1280.jpg http://sharon-taxonomy2009-p2.wikispaces.com/file/view/bacteria.jpg/100259545/bacteria.jpga How would it impact society? These are the three parts of my question. This would be a very controversial issue. Culture
Literature Atoms are made from electrons, protons, and neutrons
The protons and neutrons are in the middle, and they make up the nucleus
They sit in the middle because they are much more massive than the electrons
The electron's wave packets are "smeared" out in shells around the nucleus, but these shells only are present in certain places with certain energy levels, according to the laws of quantum mechanics
The placement of these orbitals and the difference in their energy levels determines which colours of light an atom can absorb or emit
No matter how solid they seem, atoms are mostly empty space
If the nucleus of an atom was a marble in the middle of a football stadium, the electrons would be a shell, way out in the cheap seats It is probably just a matter of building newer and more capable equipment. There is nothing that says we cannot ever find it out, and the mystery can, most likely, be solved through a series of very accurate experiments. It will not be tomorrow when scientists can figure out how the universe began, and it will take many technological advancements. And that will not be the end of physics; was there something before the Big Bang? He was the first person to hypothesize Earth not being at the center of the universe
Instead, he thought Earth orbited the Sun
Modern astronomy began with his studies
He laid the groundwork for many more scientists and revolutions to come He invented a teaching method called the Socratic Method
This teaching method laid the groundwork for the Scientific Method, the way of asking questions to make discoveries in science

Ask A Question
Conduct Background Research
Think of a Hypothesis
Test the Hypothesis with an Experiment
Analyze Data/ Make Conclusion
Communicate the Results http://alessiomoretti.perso.sfr.fr/NOTSocrates.jpeg http://science.discovery.com/space/space-scientists/images/famous-astronomers/nicolaus-copernicus-500x600.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ERbg2_jqFW4/UJFFhIBY1wI/AAAAAAAAcHI/oNb1hc8BGqA/s1600/galileo_domenico_crespi.jpg
http://nerd-alert.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Arecibo_Observatory.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ERbg2_jqFW4/UJFFhIBY1wI/AAAAAAAAcHI/oNb1hc8BGqA/s1600/galileo_domenico_crespi.jpg http://s3.amazonaws.com/mbc_actionha/uploads/89825/original.jpg http://harpers.org/wp-content/uploads/johannes_kepler_1610.jpg http://newscenter.lbl.gov/wp-content/uploads/nucleon-and-QGP.jpg These are some of the things that may or may not be found on other worlds, and that probes and rovers like Curiosity are trained to look for. http://www.paranormalhaze.com/img/extraterrestrial/alien-abduction-entities/04.jpg He developed the Bohr model of the atom, which was an improvement in our understanding of atoms
The Bohr model says that the protons and neutrons are tiny balls stuck to each other in the nucleus, and that the electrons are tiny spheres that orbit the nucleus http://makezineblog.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/godfreykneller-isaacnewton-1689.jpg?w=600&h=824 http://thestar.smgmedia.topscms.com/images/9c/d3/565c3fa04a37ab4df9815eb8fe77.jpeg http://www.barilan-magazine.co.il/image/users/148422/ftp/my_files/zarkor/%20.png?id=10036902 http://www.bajona.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Edwin-Powell-Hubble.jpg http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02330/dna_2330322b.jpg The Big Bang http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-bzvUs3I9eAs/UImUqabY6EI/AAAAAAAALZE/W8fwchg75Pc/s1600/The-Big-Bang-Creating.jpg Expansion since the Big Bang: 13.7 billion years Present Day The Big Bang Dark Ages Adapted from: (CMBR) First stars http://img.bhs4.com/f2/f/f2fd4075e4d980776eed6f55617902564370ebbc_large.jpg 2 2 These are the steps of the Scientific Method. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton%27s_laws_of_motion
http://www.seti.org/drakeequation This line, for example, is shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. Redshift is due to: The fact that when something moves away from the observer, the wavelength is "stretched" and the faster the bright object is moving away, the more "redshifted" the light is. This is mostly guesswork, but it is the best idea that we have about how much life is out there. There's just one problem. Any alien civilization that could possibly send a message to us in any reasonable amount of time would have to be able to find some sort of wrinkle in spacetime or wormhole to send it through. Any civilization that is that advanced would think of us as "ants" and would care about us just as much as we care about ants. These are the main things that would be impacted: It would be like discovering that the Earth was round. Aliens bye! Intermission! Almost all of these criteria only have one data point! Near The Milky Way http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_87
www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bpschr.html http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/NGC_6302_Hubble_2009.full.jpg/659px-NGC_6302_Hubble_2009.full.jpg http://i2.asntown.net/5/a_diagram_shows_the_relative_size_of_the_largest_s.jpg Afterglow of Big Bang http://www2.physics.umd.edu/~redish/Money/democritus.jpg Erwin Schrödinger http://loffit.abc.es/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Schroedinger.jpg Richard Feynman http://i2.minus.com/ijXiwny54iiWF.jpg http://i2.minus.com/ijXiwny54iiWF.jpg
http://thisquantumworld.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/deBroglie-1024x361.png He came up with the theory of quantum electrodynamics, or QED, which is the most accurate theory ever devised by humans
QED is the full theory of the interaction of light and matter, while Quantum Mechanics is a low-speed approximation 1887 AD 1918 AD He published books in many different fields, such as genetics, philosophy, biology and cosmology
His main source of fame was a theory called Wave Mechanics, which is a way to describe the movement and behaviour of electrons as waves
Wave Mechanics is part of Quantum Mechanics Sun! http://www.ohgizmo.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/dsc_9707-custom.jpg http://thisquantumworld.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/deBroglie-1024x361.png http://nuggetblast.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/drake-equation.jpg The Arecibo Radio Telescope in Puerto Rico is one of the largest in the world. And when scientists there sent messages to the stars...

Governments around the world scolded the scientists there, telling them that the messages could be dangerous and could lead potentially hostile aliens to Earth.

They prohibited the Arecibo Telescope from ever sending a message to a star again for global safety reasons. http://nerd-alert.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Arecibo_Observatory.jpg These numbers are from Frank Drake's initial guess in 1961.
More recent guesses provide lower numbers. This is important because if everything is moving away from everything else, then that means that the space in between everything is expanding. And if the universe is expanding, run time backwards and everything condenses into a singularity! If everything began in a singularity, then it would have had to spring out to cause the expanding universe. And that is the Big Bang!
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