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Copy of Thanks For The Memories!

Forty Studies That Changed Psychology

fernando mercado

on 8 February 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Thanks For The Memories!

Thanks For
The Memories! faculty.washington.edu Study by Elizabeth Loftus Theory: That the way questions are based can alter a person's memory. In that if a false statement is added to the way the question is stated, you may come to believe that the statement is true in later questions. Also that if you are asked about a nonexistent object in a question, you may think it really happened later on. Experiment 1: 150 Students watched a video of a car accident. They were split up and asked separate questions, one mentioning running the stop sign and one that didn't. The last question asked "Did you see a stop sign?" 53% of the people whose question mentioned the stop sign said they saw it. While only 35% of the people whose question didn't mention it said they also saw it. Result: Experiment 1: Significantly showed that whenever something was in their question, they automatically placed it as true.

Experiment 2: The wording of the questions can change the way the students remember basic characteristics they witnessed.

Experiment 3: Giving the subjects false statements in their question can sway their way of answering later questions.

Experiment 4: Just the mention of a word can not cause the object to be added to the memory. This was not statistically proven at least. Significance: Research in the areas on memory reconstruction are still being worked on. Elizabeth Loftus is considered to be the one of the leading researchers in those fields. The findings of other researchers have stacked up to what she found in her studies.

Eyewitness reports are big in the psychological and legal jobs. They often provide many errors and inaccuracy. It is because of the studies she did along with others that make officials skeptical. Loftus is one of the most requested expert witnesses for court cases to demonstrate to the juries the care they must use when looking over the testimony of eyewitnesses. Method: Experiment 2: 40 students were shown a video. The video showed them a class and the class got interrupted by 8 different demonstrators. During their quiz, half were asked "was the first of the 12 demonstrators a male?" The other half was asked "Was the first of the 4 demonstrators a male?" A week later they were asked "How many demonstrators disrupted the class?" Group who was told 12 said on average 8.85 and the group who were told 4 said on average 6.4. http://pd.scisdragons.net/ibpsych/files/2011/09/Loftusthanks-for-the-memories.pdf chart (experiment 4) http://pd.scisdragons.net/ibpsych/files/2011/09/Loftusthanks-for-the-memories.pdf Experiment 3: 150 university students watched a video of an accident and half were asked "how fast was the sports car going as is passed the barn on the country road?", the other half were asked "how fast was the sports car going on the country road?" 1 week later they were asked "Did you see the Barn?" 13 of the group where it was mentioned said yes and only 2 from the other group said yes. Experiment 4: 3 different groups of people branching off of experiment 3. The Group D: They were given booklets of "filler questions" & 5 key questions about nonexistent objects. Group F: False presumption group receiving the same filler questions and key questions with presumptions about the same nonexistent objects. And Group C: the control group with only filler questions. They took a quiz one week later to see what they remembered from the questions. The overall percentages were too similar for it to be a significant difference. "I study memory and I am a skeptic."-Elizabeth Loftus www.dickinson.edu References:



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