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EDFD553: Comparison of modern and postmodern educational paradigms
Transcript of EDFD553: Comparison of modern and postmodern educational paradigms
Creativity expert, Sir Ken Robinson challenges the way we are teaching our children.
To understand a game students must encode and decode, the game informs, “audiences are active constructors of textual meaning. The active audience consciously interacts with the text to produce meanings that may differ from official ‘authorial’ encoded meaning of the text” (Apperley, 2010). Stuart Hall explains decoding, that texts don’t have one dominant meaning, rather it is individuals that provide the meaning and this ‘reading’ is interpretive, therefore it offers different meanings. “Decoding describes the process of ‘reading’ the co-produced cybertext, the players interpret the cybertext that is dynamically unfolding before them” (Apperley, 2010).
Professor James Gee has long been a proponent of games in education, and that they offer relevant reform. “Good games focus on problem solving…games provide a sequence of challenges that gradually increase in difficulty, so players are constantly working at the cutting (and most exciting) edge of their abilities” (Gee & Shaffer, 2010).
This aligns with Vygotsky’s theory of the ‘zone of proximal development, where tasks are modelled or scaffolded in such a way that teachers are aware of what a student knows and how to develop this further. This is what computer games do. They begin with what is known and then through a series of challenges they build on this to develop thinking further (Mills, 2010).
“Good game design starts with the question: how will the player be tested?...How can we help the player pass the text? How will we know the player has passed the test?...These questions lead games to incorporate good learning designs precisely because they have first incorporated good assessment designs” (Gee & Shaffer, 2010).
"Postmodern buildings typically have unclear spatial boundaries, avoiding clear endings, beginnings, climaxes thus embracing principles of complexity and contradiction" ( Best and Kellner 1997 p152)
"Postmodernism in art, architecture, music, film, drama and fiction-as a reflection of the present wave of political reactions sweeping the Western world" Featherstone -2007
Modern and Postmodern
classroom and learning space design
Open space learning: Fitzroy High School
Implementation of information communication
technology in the classroom
Collaborative and innovative learning environments: Carey Baptist Grammar School
Teacher directed learning
Classroom layout was designed to support teacher directed learning
ICT via Youtube: a look at the 21st century classroom
The blackboard was a primary teaching tool
therefore was located at the center of the classroom
Interactive white boards have replaced the traditional classroom fixtures of blackboards and overhead projectors
Encoding and decoding is an important paradigm and it is part of constructivist pedagogy where students become active audiences, rather than passive receivers of information in a classroom, and this is an important distinction between 20th and 21st century pedagogy. It goes beyond just one reading, rather there are multiple ways students can interpret texts.
An interpretation of Edgar Allen Poe's The Pit and The Pendulum.
Use of art and other visual resources in postmodern education: Image based learning
an aesthetic self-consciousness and reflexiveness, a rejection of narrative structure in favour of simultaneity and montage; an exploration of the paradoxical, ambiguous and uncertain open-ended nature of reality, and a rejection of the notion of an integrated personality in favour of an emphasis upon the de-structured, de-humanised subject (Featherstone, 2007)
the effacement of the boundary between art and everyday life: the collapse of the hierarchical distinction between high and mass or popular culture,
a stylistic promiscuity favouring eclecticism and the mixing of codes; mixing of different elements of different movements, parody, pastiche, irony,
playfulness and the celebration of the surface and depthlessness of culture, the decline of the originality and genius of the artistic producer,
the assumption that art can only be repetitious (Featherstone, 2007)
"Any everyday object could be aestheticized" (Featherstone, 2007). As conceptualised in Andy Warhol's work
Literature and Film
Examples of Postmodern Literature:
-White Noise (1985) by Don DeLillo
-Catch-22 (1961) by Joseph Conrad
-Watchmen (1984) by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons
-Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk
-Everything is Illuminated (2002) by Jonathan Safron Foer
-1Q84 (2009-2010) by Haruki Murakami
-Slaughterhouse-Five (1969) by Kurt Vonnegut
Characteristics of Postmodernism in Literature and Film:
-Technoculture and Hyperreality
For definitions of each of the above terms, follow this link:
"Postmodern architecture was a specific reaction to the aesthetic and philosophical assumptions of international style "(Best and Kellner 1997 p152)
Flexible learning spaces: Education spaces must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate an ever increasing range of teaching and learning scenarios and technologies ( OECD 2006 p 12)
The new quadrangle, Carey Baptist Grammar Senior School is an example of a flexible learning space. It serves as a center for social interaction and relaxation for students as well as a reception center, restaurant, canteen , function and performance center
Features of an innovative
- Use of colour
- Presence of ICT e.g smartboards
- Space for individual and
- Flexible e.g furniture is
Combination of public
and commercial space
Postmodern architecture "breaks with quest for purity, reintroduces symbolism, metaphor, colour and past historical styles ( Best and Kellner 1997 p 153)
Modern architecture is characterised by its simplicity in design
The term modern architecture has been "applied since the late 19th century to buildings in a variety of styles, in which emphasis is placed on functionalism, rationalism, and current methods of construction" (McGraw-Hill 2006)
Students attention is focused on the teacher which is evident in a single row, facing the front lay out of students desks
Classrooms were simplistic in design. They subscribed to the bare minimum approach
Classroom furniture e.g desk,benches and seats were secured
to the floor
Stakeholders are involved in the design process
The term postmodernism may be applied to both the literary and cinematic contexts, although due to its very nature, tends to defy both definition and classification. It may be identified through the prominence of fragmentation, paradox and questionable narrators as distinguishing characteristics. Due to the contentiousness of such a term, it is often defined in relation with and as a reaction to its precursor; modernism. Postmodern literature and film may be seen as making a self-conscious break from traditional styles of literature and film through the conscious desire to overturn traditional modes of representation in order to express the new sensibilities of the time.
Examples of Modern Literature:
- Ulysses (1922) by James Joyce
-The Metamorphosis (1915) by Franz Kafka
-Sons and Lovers (1913) by D.H. Lawrence
-The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1916) by T.S. Eliot
Film and Literature
Characteristics of postmodern:
-Intertextuality: the key postmodern feature in the film. Many different genres are represented in the film such as gangster, war and romance and art house.
-Pastiche: incorporated throughout the entire film. The story lines, dialogue, camera angles, character and weapons are inspired from a variety of different movies.
-The film narrative is fragmented and disorientating in reference to time and space, with the emphasis on micro narratives
Comparison of modern and postmodern educational paradigms
Graffiti as Art
“I always hope that if one million people see my movies. They see one million different movies.” Quentin Tarantino
"In Modernism, reality used to validate media. In Postmodernism, the media validate reality. If you don't believe this, just think how many times you've described some real event as being 'just like a movie'"(Brad Holland).
POST MODERN FILMS