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Copy of Piping (Flange Basics)
Transcript of Copy of Piping (Flange Basics)
The flange is a ring-shaped device designed to be used as an alternative to welding or threading various piping system components used throughout the piping system.
Rating, as applied to flanges, may best be defined as the maximum pressure allowed by the pressure piping code for the specific temperature at which the flange will be operating.
These pressure ratings,sometimes called pound ratings, are divided into seven categories for forged steel flanges. They are 150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500#, and 2500#. Cast iron flanges have pound ratings of 25#, 125#, 250#, and 800#.
The mating surface of a flange, nozzle, or valve is called the face. The face is usually machined to create a smooth surface.
As the name implies, flanges with flat faces are those that have a flat, level connecting surface (see Figure 4-2).
The most common face type in use, the raised face is available in all seven of the aforementioned pound ratings. Appropriately named, this flange face has a prominent raised surface. With shallow grooves etched into the raised surface, this flange face assures a positive grip with the gasket. Flanges rated 150# and 300# have a Me" raised face, while flanges 400# and above have a 1A" raised face (see Figure 4-4).
Also known simply as ring joint, the ring-type joint does not use a gasket to form a seal between connecting flanges. Instead a round metallic ring is used that rests in a deep groove cut into the flange face (see Figure 4-6).
Flanges have been designed and developed to be used in a myriad of applications. Each one has its own special characteristics, and should be carefully selected to meet specific function requirements. The following flanges will be discussed in this chapter:
The weld neck flange shown in Figure 4-8 is occasionally referred to as the "high-hub" flange. It is designed to reduce high-stress concentrations at the base of the flange by transferring stress to the adjoining pipe.
The threaded flange depicted in Figure 4-17 similar to the slip-on flange, but the bore is threaded. Its principal value is that it can be assembled without welding.
The socket weld flange shown in Figure 4-19 is also similar to the slip-on flange. It was originally developed for use on small diameter W through 4") high-pressure piping systems.
The reducing flange in Figure 4-21 is used to make a reduction in the diameter of the pipe.
The lap-joint flange in Figure 4-15 is primarily used on carbon or low alloy steel piping systems. Attachment of the lap-joint flange to the piping system requires a lapjoint stub end.
The blind flange depicted in Figure 4-23 serves a function similar to that of a plug or cap. It is used to terminate the end of a piping system.
Of the flanges discussed, the orifice flange (Figure 4-25) is the only one that actually performs a function. The function of the orifice flange is to measure the rate of the flow of the commodity through the piping system. Orifice flanges are easy to recognize because they have a hole drilled through the face of the flange perpendicular to the pipe.
The slip-on flange shown in Figure 4-13 has a low hub that allows the pipe to be inserted into the flange prior to welding. Shorter in length than a weld neck flange, the slip-on flange is used in areas where short tie-ins are necessary or space limitations necessitate its use.
BOLT & STUD
Bolts obviously hold mating flanges, nozzles, or valves together
Gaskets is a material made from asbestos, rubber, neoprene, Teflon, lead, or copper used to make leak-free environtment.
Copyright @ Ahmad Musa Ibrahim R (111724003)