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Chapter 1: Characteristics of Living Things
Transcript of Chapter 1: Characteristics of Living Things
Living things are everywhere. Some are easy to identify.
Some living things are not so easy to identify.
How many different kinds of living things can you identify in this picture?
What is Life Science?
What are Living Things?
What are the needs of organisms?
Studying Life Science
Science is an organized collection of knowledge about the world. It is a way of finding out why things happen as they do.
Scientists try to solve problems by testing possible answers to see if they work. Science knowledge is based on testing and observations.
What does an epidemiologist study?
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
The scientific study of the areas of science that deal with living things is called life science. Life science is divided into many different branches.
Botanists study plants. Some careers in botany are plant geneticist and horticularalist.
Microbiologists study viruses and very small living things. Two careers in microbiology are cell biologist and epiemiologist.
Zoologists study animals. Marine biologist and veterinarian are two of the careers in zoology.
Ecologists study the way living things interact with their environment. Park ranger and environmentalist are careers in ecology.
Branches of Life Science
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
The study of living things affects your life in many ways.
The medicine you might use for acne was developed through scientific study.
The causes and warning signs of cancer were learned from scientific research.
Doctors can perform operations because they know about the parts of the human body and how they work.
The importance of Life Science
Some of the foods you eat were grown by using information about plants.
Many cheeses could not be made without molds.
Yogurt could not be made without bacteria.
1. The knowledge of science is based on _________.
2. Life science is made up of many different ________.
3. Anatomy and _________ are branches of life science.
4. A scientist who studies only one small branch of life science is a __________.
5. Ecology is the study of the way living things interact with their __________.
(A scientist who studies only one small branch of life science is a specialist.)
One branch is anatomy, or the study of parts of the body.
Another branch is physiology, or the study of how the whole body functions.
more branches of life science
All living things are called organisms. Other things, such as cars and radios, are nonliving.
Characteristics of Organisms
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Biologists use six characteristics, or qualities, to classify something as a living thing. All organisms have these six characteristics.
It is not always easy to decide if something is living or nonliving. Nonliving things may do some of the same things as organisms. For example, a robot may move and speak like a person. A robot, however, is not living. Plants and animals grow, or get larger. Icicles also grow, but icicles are not living.
Organisms are made up of one or more cells. A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Cells often are called the building blocks of life.
Organisms use energy. Energy is the ability to do work or cause change. Sunlight is the source of energy for most organisms. Plants use the energy from the Sun by eating plants or other animals that have eaten plants.
All organisms have features that help them adapt to their surroundings. For example, chameleons change color to help blend in with their environment. This helps protect them from predators.
Organisms react to changes in their surroundings. Any reaction to a change is called a response. You might respond to the honking of a car's horn by jumping. A bright light may cause you to close your eyes.
Organisms change, or develop, during their lifetimes. One way organisms change is by growing. They may also change in appearance.
Organisms can produce more organisms of their own kind. For example, pine trees produce more pine trees. The production of new organisms allow each kind of organism to continue living on Earth.
Everything around you is made up of matter. Matter is any substance that has mass.
Some substances can be broken down into simpler substances. For example, water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. However, hydrogen and oxygen cannot be broken down. The substances are called elements.
The smallest part of an element is called atom.
Most living things are made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Different organisms contain different percentages of these elements.
What are four elements found in most organisms?
When two or more atoms from different elements join, they form a compound. Most compounds contain carbon. Most compounds found in living things are called organic compounds.
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Sugars and starches are types of carbohydrates.
Organisms use carbohydrates for energy.
There are four main types of organic compounds found in all organisms.
Lipids, or fats, are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen.
Organisms use lipids to store energy.
Proteins are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
They help organisms repair their bodies.
Nucleic acids are a combination of sugars, nitrogen, and other elements.
They contain important information about organisms.
All organisms need energy to grow. They obtain energy from the food they eat.
Some organisms make their own food. They are called autotrophs. Plants are an example of autotrophs.
Other organisms cannot make their own food. They are called heterotrophs. Humans are heterotrophs.
Organisms also need water. Without water, all plants and animals would die.
Plants use water to make food. About two-thirds or your body is water.
Most substances dissolve in water. These dissolved substances can then be transported throughout a living thing. Most chemical changes in living things need water to take place.
Without oxygen, most living things would die in minutes.
Air is a mixture of gases. Oxygen is one of the gases in air. Oxygen is needed by most living things to change food into energy.
Land organisms get oxygen from the air. Water organisms get oxygen from the water.
All organisms need a place to live, or living space.
In order for an organism to survive, its living space must provide all its needs: food, water, air, shelter, and proper temperature.
In any environment, living space is limited. All the organisms in the environment compete for resources in their living space.
Organisms need a proper temperature to live. Most organisms could live only withing a small temperature range if it were not for homeostatis.
Homeostatis is the process of keeping conditions inside an organism constant, no matter the conditions outside.
Cold-blooded animals do not have a constant body temperature. Their body temperatures change as the tempertures of their surroundings change. To maitnain homeostasis, cold-blooded animals must change to their surroundings.
Warm-blooded animals have a constant body temperature. When temperatures in the environment change, a warm-blooded animal's body temperature stays about the same. This happens automatically without having to think about it.
Were dinosaurs warm-blooded or cold-blooded animals?
How do organisms use energy?
All organisms carry out life processes. Life processes are the things an organism must do to stay alive.
Organisms take in food, or nutrients.
Nutrients are changed into useable form.
Nutrients are chemical substances needed for growth and energy.
Ingestion and Digestion
Cells use energy in the form of sugar. During cellular respiration, sugar molecules break apart and releases energy. Carbon dioxide and water are also produced. These are byproducts of cellular respiration.
energy, water, and carbon dioxide
An organism makes waste products. Some waste products are made during digestion. Others are fromed during cellular respiration. All organisms must get of the waste products.
Once food is digested, nutrients must be carried to all parts of a living thing. Waste products must be carried away and excreted. The moving of nutrients through an organism is called transport.
Veins carry blood with wastes and carbon dioxide to the right side of the heart. The right side of the heart pumps blood into the lungs. In the lungs, the blood exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen. The oxygen-rich blood moves from the lungs to the left side of the heart.
The left side of the human heart pumps oxygen-rich blood to arteries that carry blood to all parts of the body. Blood from the arteries enters the capillaries. In the capillaries, oxygen and nutrients are delivered to cells, and wastes and carbon dioxide are removed from cells.
How do organisms respond to change?
Stimulus and Response
Organisms respond to their environments. In the morning, your alarm clock rings. You respond by waking up. The ringing alarm clock is a stimulus. A stimulus is a change that causes a response.
The way in which an organism responds to stimuli is called behavior. A behavior that an organism is born with is called instinct. Nest building is an instinct in some kinds of birds. Other behaviors have to be learned. Tying your shoelaces is a learned behavior.
The seasonal movement of animals from one place to another and back again. Animals often migrate to warmer places during the cold months to find food. Animals also migrate to find a safe place to reproduce and raise their young.
Some animals spend time in the winter months in a sleeplike state called hibernation. During hibernation, an animal is not active. The body temperature of the animal lowers. The heartbeat lowers, and since the animal does not need to use as much energy, it can live off the fat stored in its body.
Testing Pupil Response to Light
You will need a penlight or a flashlight.
1. Work with a partner. Look at the pupil of your partner's eye. The pupil is the dark circle in the middle of the colored part of the eye. Note the size of the pupil.
2. Quickly shine the penlight in your partner's eye. Observe what happens to the size of the pupil.
3. Take the light away. Observe what happens to the size of the pupil.
1. What happened to the size of the pupil when the light was shone on it?
2. What was the stimulus and what is the response?
3. What happened to the size of the pupil when you took the light away? Why do you think this happened?
4. What would happen if the pupil never changed sizes?
5. Under what conditions would the size of the pupil be the largest?
Where do organisms come from?
Hundreds of years ago, people believed that mice came from straw. They also believed that maggots and flies grew from rotting meat. The idea that living things came from nonliving things is called spontaneous generation.
In the 1600's, most people believed in spontaneous generation.
Franceso Redi was an Italian doctor. He lived during the seventeeth century. He did not think that living things came from nonliving things. He thought that organisms could only come from other organisms. To test his hypothesis, Redi performed an experiment.
Louis Pasteur was French microbiologist who also performed an experiment to disprove spontaneous generation.
How do organisms make more of their own kind?
Organisms do not live forever. Before many organisms die, they produce new organisms like themselves. The process by which organisms produce new organisms is called reproduction.
Reproduction does not keep individual organisms alive.
Reproduction continues each kind of living thing by producing new organisms called offspring.
There are two kinds of reproduction
Simple organisms and some plants produce offspring by asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is reproduction that requires only one parent.
In asexual reproduction, each new offspring is an exact copy of its parent.
A simple form of asexual reproduction is called fission. In fission, new organisms are produced when the parent organism splits in two.
Another form of asexual reproduction is budding. Budding is the growth of a new organism from the parent organism.
Most types of living things reproduce by sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction is reproduction needing two parents, cells form when parents join.
A new organism develops from the joined cells. This new organism is not exactly like either of its parents. Instead, the offspring has some features of each parent and may have features of neither parent.
1. The ability of an organism to keep conditions inside its body constant.
2. The inactive state of some animals during winter months.
3. The idea that living things come from nonliving things.
4. The process by which a cell releases energy from food molecules.
5. Reproduction needing two parents.
6. New organisms produced by a living thing.
7. Studying or working in only one part of a subject.
8. Chemical substances that is needed to carry out life processes.
On your own
Complete the remainder of pages 34-36
(yes, all of it).
Read the directions carefully.
Write out written responses using complete sentences.