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Transcript of Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde's Works
Importance As An Author
Oscar Wilde's Life
The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891)
The Importance of Being Earnest (1895)
Lady Windermere's Fan (1892)
The Ballad of Reading Gael (1898)
Important Factors in the Trial
May 25th, 1895
In the end, not only did Wilde lose his case, but he was charged for gross indecency. The judge served him the the worst possible punishment that the law would allow, which was 2 years in prison with hard labour.
At this time in England, hard labour meant a 6 mile walk each day, and visitors were allowed once every 3 monthes - and absolutely no physical contact. Wilde slept in his cell alone, on a wooden plank and no matress.
A handsome, young man named Dorian Gray who is obsessed with his physical attributes.
An aspiring artist decides to paint a beautiful portrait of Dorian.
Dorian wishes that he could always have his youthful appearance in the portrait. However, Dorian's wish does indeed come true.
Takes you through 20 years of Dorian's life as he slowly becomes consumed by hedonism.
About a wife and young mother, Lady Windermere whose moral code leads her to the brink of social suicide
The only person who can save her is the mysterious, Mrs. Erlynne- who is involved in a scandalous relationship with Lord Windermere.
2 wealthy gentleman named Jack and Algernon
known to Algernon as Ernest and lives a respectable like in the country side
invents a younger brother named Ernest
wishes to marry Algernon's cousin, Gwendolen, but must first convince her mother, Lady Bracknell
lives in luxury in London and has invented an imaginary friend named Bunburry
marries Jack's young ward, Cecily
Jack arrives home announcing that Ernest has died
Jack realizes that his parents were Lady Bracknell's sister- and brother-in-law and that he is Algernon's older brother
"To live is the rarest thing in the word, most people exist, that is all."
The Famous Oscar Wilde Trials
Family Life & Childhood
From an early age, Wilde was a talented student who had a gift for languages.
In 1971 at the age of 17, Oscar Wilde was awarded a scholarship for Trinity College in Dublin to study classics.
During his time at trinity, Wilde came first in his class. He also won the Berkely Gold Medal which was the University's highest academic award. Wilde received another scholarship, and went on to study in Magdalen College at the University of Oxford in 1874.
In 1878, he received the Newdigate prize for his poem "Ravenna". The same year, he graduated with a double degree firsts (meaning high academic achievement) with a B.A. in Classical Moderations and Literary Humanities.
The same year, Wilde moved to London.
Trinity College in Dublin
Oscar and Lord Douglas
2 Film Adaptations
Lord Alfred Douglas' father ruined the opening night by yelling obscene names to Wilde
2 movie adaptations
Poem written while he was in exile, after his 2 year sentence
Narrates the executions that he witnessed
Highlights the punishments of different convicts
Tragic play that tells the Biblical story of Salome, who requests the head of Jokanaan on a silver platter. Salome is portrayed as a spoiled princess with little regard for human life and far too much awareness of her own beauty.
"Oscar Wilde." Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/oscar-wilde-63.php
"World Socialist Web Site." Oscar Wilde's Lasting Significance -. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/1997/07/wild-j28.html
"Oscar Wilde." - Biography and Works. Search Texts, Read Online. Discuss. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.online-literature.com/wilde/
"'The Importance of Being Earnest': Characters & Plot." Victoria and Albert Museum, Online Museum, Web Team, Webmaster@vam.ac.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/importance-of-being-earnest-characters-and-plot/
"Reading Wilde, Reading Gaol: A Synopsis." - Infoshop News. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://news.infoshop.org/article.php?story=2009oscar-wilde
"Dangers Untold and Hardships Unnumbered." : Review: Salomé by Oscar Wilde. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://rhiannon-hart.blogspot.ca/2010/04/review-salome-by-oscar-wilde.html
"Oscar Wilde." Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/oscar-wilde-63.php
BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wilde_oscar.shtml
"Oscar Wilde Biography." Biography of Oscar Wilde. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013.http://www.wilde-online.info/oscar-wilde-biography.htm
BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/o/oscar_wilde.html#ooq8xktuHtFiajTI.99
"Quotations by Author." Oscar Wilde Quotes. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.quotationspage.com/quotes/Oscar_Wilde
"Oscar Wilde Quotes." Oscar Wilde Quotes (Author of The Picture of Dorian Gray). N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/3565.Oscar_Wilde
Oscar Final O'Flahertie Wills Wilde "Oscar Wilde", born on October 16th, 1854 in Dublin Ireland in an affluent family. His father, William Wilde, was a prestigious doctor who was knighted for his work. His mother, Jane Francesca Elgee was a poet who wrote for the newspaper.
Wilde has one older brother, Wiliam who is 2 years older.
Wilde also has a younger sister, Isola Emily Fransesca who is 3 years younger than him. Unfortunately, she passed away at the age of 10 from a sickness. As remembrance, he kept a lock of her hair with him in an envelope.
ADOLESCENTS & EARLY ADULTHOOD
Oscar Wilde styled long hair and dressed in a well manner. He collected blue china, and was always clean and tidy. His well dressed manner enhanced his reputation, even through Wilde was not in the financial situation at the time. His extravagant lifestyle allowed him to mingle with many wealthy individuals of society. This was one of the most significant factors which would impact his life....
1881, Oscar Wilde's writing career begun when he published his first set of poetry titled "Poems"
1882 - Wilde went to North America for a year-long lecture tour. During this time, he advocated for the philosophy of the Aesthetics. Wilde himself was profoundly affected by beauty and lived and dressed flamboyantly compared to the typical Victorian styles and males of the time.
1884 (age 30) - Oscar Wilde married Constance Lloyd, her mother was apart of the Queens Counsel. They would have two boys: Cyril (1885) and Vyvyan (1886).
The Oscar Wilde Controversy
To me, beauty is the wonder of wonders. It is only shallow people who do not judge by appearances
To me, beauty is the wonder of wonders. It is only shallow people who do not judge by appearancesTo me, beauty is the wonder of wonders. It is only shallow people who do not judge by appearances
In 1891 Wilde met Lord Alfred "Bosie" Douglas, son of nobleman John Douglas 9th Marquias of Queensberry at a tea party.
This was shortly after his well known novel "Picture of Dorian Gray" had risen to popularity, and therefor Boise had known and admired Wilde since reading his novel.
WIlde and Bosie soon begun an intimate relationship, exchanging love letters in secret. They had a 20+ years age gap. Wilde would soon begin a "double life", one with his wife and another side of him was with Bosie.
At the same time, Oscar Wilde's homosexuality was some sort of an "open secret" because of the way he dressed and carried himself. In addition, his novel "The Picture of Dorian Gray" included multiple homosexual references and also lacked female characters.
During their time period, homosexuality, "sodomy" was against the law, and extremely looked down upon
Reaction of John Douglas
Similarly around the time where "The Picture of Dorian Gray" had grown to popularity, Bosie also published a poem titled "My Love", which also sparked controversy as many suspected it was a praise to homosexuality.
"I am the love that dare not speak it's name"
During this time, Bosie's father, John Douglas, was increasingly growing suspicious of his son's relationship with Oscar Wilde.
His tipping point came when he saw his son and Wilde eating dinner together in a cafe. This commenced a series of insolent acts as Douglas continuously tried to discourage Wilde.
Wilde had the last straw when Douglas left his calling card at a club which Oscar and his wife frequently visited, with the message "For Oscar Wilde, Posing Somdomite" - misspell for sodomite.
In retaliation, but also in anger and to defend his honor, he sued Queensberry for Libel. Many of his close friends advised against it as John Douglas was a very important and wealthy member of society.
This would start a series of trials, and unfortunate events for Oscar Wilde.
The restaurant was called Albermarle Club and subsequently went out of business when John Douglas stormed in to give Oscar Wilde his message. It was also metioned in the trial soon to come, and it's reputation diminished.
1. When Oscar Wilde went under oath and was questioned if he had committed any acts of gross indecency with John Douglas (Bosie), he made the mistake of commiting perjury by responding that nothing had ever happened. Both Queesnberry and his lawyer knew this was false, and commited to proving him wrong in the rest of the trial.
2. Following this, Carson (Queensberry's Lawyer) read a passage from Dorian Gray in which male character and painter, Basil Hallward describes his feelings for the another character: Dorian Gray
"Well, from the moment I met you, your personality had the most extraordinary influence over me. I quite admit that I adored you madly, extravagantly, absurdly. I was jealous of every one to whom you spoke. I wanted to have you all to myself. I was only happy when I was with you. When I was away from you, you were still present in my art."
3. The status and financial position of Queensberry helped him in collecting significant evidence against Wilde. Queensberry brought in a hotel maids whom have confirmed evidence of sodomy.
"A man's face is his autobiography. A woman's face is her work of fiction."
"I can resist everything except temptation."
"I have the simplest taste,
I am only satisfied with the best."
"One should always be in love. That is the reason one should never marry."
"If you are not too long, I will wait here for you all my life."
Think & Rethink
Talented Romantic Poet, Playwright and Author
Ability to Make People Rethink
Introduce new perspective to old ideas
Openly gay, in Victorian era
Bold enough to portray "ugly" topics
Inspire other writers and people
"The books people call immoral are books that show the world its own shame."
Unfortunately for Wilde, he was at the peak of his success at this time. Subsequently, his increasingly successful play "The Important of Being Earnest" was banned from all theatres, and his name was taken down everywhere. Any supporters were also prosecuted, and his remaining friends fled the country for fear that they would be charged themselves.
Wilde also had to pay for his and Queensberry costs for the trial. At this point, he declared bankruptcy and sold every single one of his belongings. This included real estates, valuble paintings, and first edition books.
His wife and children fled Europe and changed their last names to Holland to hide their family's infamy. As a result of legal action taken by Constance's family, Wilde was never allowed to see his children again. She died in 1898.
Oscar Wilde's Last Years
Romantic era, 18th century
Shown in Dorian Gray, Salome, and Importance of Being Ernest
appeals to a large audience
While in prison, Wilde's body weakened from the harsh conditions. Unfortunately, he never truly recovered.
He also wrote two works during his time: The Ballad of Reading Gael and De Profoundis
He was released in 1897, and changed his name to Sebastian Melmoth to avoid his past. Wilde had no money, no friends, and went to France to be with Bosie. However, their romance was short lived from comlications and threats from Bosie's father.
He passed away on May 19th, 1884 at age 46, in a cheap hotel in France, still broke. He was suffering from Celebrea Meningitis, most likely caused by the poor health conditions of his imprisonment.
"There are only two tragedies in life: one is not getting what one wants, and the other is getting it."
Why do you think Oscar Wilde incorporated so much wit into his literary pieces?
Can an author still be regarded as great if his/her pieces were made to entertainment rather than directly discussing serious issues?
Writer for the aesthetics movement
philosophy dealing with nature of art, beauty and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty
"cheap thrills" meant to be art rather than for politics