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Rise to Power - Stalin, Hitler, Mao

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Parth Oak

on 17 April 2014

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Transcript of Rise to Power - Stalin, Hitler, Mao

Rise to Power - Stalin, Hitler, Mao
The Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic was formed in January 1919 after an armistice was signed in November 1918.
The Weimar Republic had many political weaknesses which allowed the Nazi's to rise to power.
Additionally since there were constant governmental changes, the people's faith in democracy was weakened.
Political Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic
Voting system was based on proportional representation, which allowed small parties to gain representation in the Reichstag.
Constitution gave too much power to the president, who appoints the chancellor (person that runs the government) and can also rule by decree in an emergency, which was used irresponsibly.
Treaty of Versailles
Germany lost 13% of its land in Europe and all of its colonies.
Forced Germany to accept the war guilt and pay 6.6 billion in reparations
Self determination was applied to many parts of Europe, however many ethnic Germans were left outside of the borders of Germany.
Armed forces were restricted
Germany was divided in two by a strip of land given to Poland.
Economic Weaknesses
Germany was economically weak after WWI because of the costs of war and the economic blockade.
After Germany couldn't pay the French reparations in 1921, France occupied the Ruhr, and took payment in the form of production.
Additionally Germany overprinted money leading up to 1923, creating hyperinflation.
Early Years of the Nazi Party
The Nazi Party was one of many right wing political party's that developed in the early years of the Weimar Republic.
The Party was founded as the DAP in 1919 by Anton Drexler.
Hitler joined the Party in September of 1919 and gave the party its focus and drive.
By 1921 Hitler was the party's chairman and he created the 25 point program which included nationalist, racist, and anti democratic ideas.
Hitler in the Nazi Party
In 1923 Hitler's name became known nationwide when he attempted to conduct a march on Berlin to force a coup.
After the failure of the march Hitler was arrested and put in jail for high treason with a 5 year sentence.
In reality Hitler only served 9 months in a prison that was much more like a hotel.
While in prison he refined his ideas and wrote his book
Mein Kampf
.
The Growth of the Nazi Party
After 1924 the Nazi Party started to contest the Reichstag elections.
Hitler put himself in a position where he was the unquestioned leader of the party
during 1925-29 the Nazis recruited heavily and organized the party so that it would better appeal to young people, women, students and other groups.
The relative prosperity of 1925-29 hurt the party as people were more willing to believe in the current system while it was working.
Mao
Early 20th Century
Defeats in Opium Wars (1839-42, 1856-60)
Country Divided into spheres of influence
Resentment culminated into Boxer rebellion in 1898-1901
Peasants faced
heavy taxes
corrupt government
1911
Defeats in Opium Wars (1839-42, 1856-60)
Country Divided into spheres of influence
Resentment culminated into Boxer rebellion in 1898-1901
Peasants faced heavy taxes and a corrupt government
1919
Treaty of Versailles humiliated China even more by giving Germany's former concessions to Japan.
Provoked a patriotic march in Beijing on May 4th
Mao helped organize and participated, although he did not have much power and was working in a library
nationwide demonstrations followed
Soviet Comintern Established
1923
Comintern brokered a cooperation between CCP and GMD called First United Front
CCP and GMD alone were not powerful enough to take down warlords and control China
1926
Northern Expedition
Campaign against warlords
CCP could not offer the man power but did help incite uprisings in Shanghai, thus allowing the GMD to take over the city
1927
White Terror
Jiang Jieshi feared that the CCP was becoming too strong (50, 000 members), and that the strikes that the CCP could start would upset the main backers of the GMD, the middle class.
After taking Shanghai, Jiang ordered GMD troops to massacre CCP members
Purge extended to other cities as the year progressed
Mao creates his own flavour of Communism
focused more on the strength of the peasants rather than the workers
Mao tried to revolt in his home province of Hunan, but was brutally suppressed, so he moved to the remote Mountains of Jingangshan
Formed Red Army
well disciplined and reliable
although there were ranks, Mao himself and other generals had to face the hardships with everyone
everyone treated equal = not beatings on lower ranks
1929
Mao's band moved to the more fertile lands of south Jiangxi
1931
Jiangxi Soviet established
1934-1935
Long March
From 1930 onwards GMD had taken 4 campaigns to eliminate the CCP
This time they decided to surround the CCP and starve them out.
Mao and the Main body of his army broke through the GMD forces in the west and traveled over 10,000 km
1935
Mao became president of CCP
1937
Japan attacked China
Led Jiang Jieshi to approach the CCP and once again create a united front
CCP able to expand army and develop guerillas tactics
1941
Jiang broke agreement and attacked the communist forces in the south
When western powers came to help the GDP defeat Japan after Pearl Harbor(December), CCP labeled GDP as dependent on foreign allies.
CCP able to advertise themselves as the only true patriots
1945
Neither US nor USSR wanted a civil war in China
USA organized a meeting between Mao and Jiang
it would be agreed that they would work together towards the creation of a democratically elected National Assembly and a single army
1946
After agreement signed, Nationalists tried to recapture Manchuria
Ceasefire under US auspices
Constitution drawn up for China, but when GMD tried to change it to give them more power, CCP withdrew
July
GMD launched major offensive against communists forces in Manchuria and started the civil war
1 October 1949
Mao gave a triumphant victory speech and became leader of China

Joseph Stalin
AdolfHitler
Early Life
Born in 1878 as Joseph Dzhugashvili.
Renamed himself Stalin after witnessing the harshness of prison and death.
Was accepted into the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party in 1912
1917 Revolution
Stalin took no part in the Revolution itself
Spread Bolshevik ideas
Civil War & Lenin's Final Years
Stalin did not respect Trotsky's authority, yet was respected by Lenin.
Lenin appointed Stalin as head of the Orgburo, and he was later elected to be in the Politburo
Power Struggle
Lenin died in 1924, creating a power vacuum.
The Bolshevik Party split into two large groups, the Left Wing Bolsheviks and the Right Wing Bolsheviks.
Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Stalin led the Left, while Bukharin led the Right.
Dissension in the Left Wing
Stalin took advantage of Zinoviev and Kamenev's fear of Trotsky, and turned them against him.
Trotsky began losing influence and support in the Party he helped found.
Trotsky lost more respect when he did not attend Lenin's funeral.
Stalin was building up his own influence in the background.
Stalin's Positions of Power
Stalin was the Party Secretary, and had positions in both the Orgburo and Politburo.
His position allowed him to appoint his own supporters to key positions in the Party and gave him the ability to stack the Politburo in his favor.
He remained out of the spotlight, something which would contribute to his nickname, "the grey blur."
Stalin's Jump Right
When Trotsky had lost most of his power, Stalin abruptly left the Left Wing Bolsheviks and joined Bukharin in the Right Wing.
Stalin was now recognized by everyone as the most powerful Bolshevik.
Trotsky, Zinoviev, and Kamenev banded together to try to take Stalin down, creating the United Opposition.
Stalin took advantage of an old ban on factions and had their group abolished.
Stalin Takes Charge
The Nazis Take Power
By 1928, Stalin was the strongest political leader in the party by far.
Stalin jumped back to the Left Wing Bolsheviks, no longer needing Bukharin's support.
He got rid of the NEP.
Stalin became the sole leader of the Soviet Union by 1929.
In 1930 Germany, along with the rest of the world, fell back into yet another depression.
This boosted support of extremist parties such as the Nazis.
In the Reichstag elections of 1932, the Nazis won 230 seats, making them the largest party in Germany.
However since the party still only controlled 37.3% of the vote, they didn't have a majority.
Historiography
Stalin's skills and strengths caused his rise to power.
Stalin's opponents' weaknesses handed Stalin the position of power.
Stalin got lucky.
After later elections in 1932 the Nazi's went to only having 196 seats.
However the SPD sided with the Nazi's rather than the KPD, and made the Reichstag hostile towards President Hindenburg and Chancellor Von Papen.
After Hindenburg was in a corner he decided to appoint Hitler to be the new Chancellor with Von Papen as the Vice Chancellor, thinking he would be a puppet leader. He was wrong.
Hitler's Assimilation of Power
Hitler immediately called for elections and created a large propaganda campaign.
The Reichstag Fire in February 1933 allowed Hitler to blame the communists and declare a state of emergency where the Nazi's could search arrest and censor anybody at will.
With the support of the Catholic Center Party, in exchange for not touching the churches, Hitler passed the enabling act, which allowed Hitler to issue any law without consulting the Reichstag.
Hitler created a single party state within 4 months of passing the enabling act by combining his legal powers and the threat of his secret police.
The Nazis Take Power Cont.
Full transcript