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A2 Personality

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Mark Whittingham

on 19 September 2013

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Transcript of A2 Personality

A2 PE Sport Psychology
Individual aspects of performance that influence young people’s participation and aspirations
Today's learning Objectives
Candidates should be able to:
•Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the theories of personality: trait perspective (the characteristics of extroversion/introversion, neuroticism/stability, Type A/Type B): social learning perspectives; interactionist approaches;
•Explain the effects of personality profiling on the adoption of balanced, active and healthy lifestyles;
•Evaluate critically personality profiling in sport

What is it?
Theories of Personality
Trait perspective
Social learning perspective
Interactionist approach
Trait perspective
The trait theory of personality formation suggests that personality is made up of a range of different secondary traits inherited from parental genes.
The trait view, therefore, maintains that all behaviour is innate and genetically programmed.
For example, a person may have a natural inclination towards ambition, competition or aggression.
Traits are thought to be stable, enduring and consistent in all situations
Personality and its importance in effective performance and to following a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle
Athletes display their own unique patterns of behaviour whilst engaged in sports performance.
It is unlikely that a definition of personality will be examined directly. To clarify the term it, however, important
Two key definitions
"Personality is the sum of an individual's characteristics which make a human unique"
"Personality represent those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of behaviour"
In your exam, you will need to demonstrate knowledge of personality theories.
These theories are based on three very different views or perspectives. Each perspective must be clearly understood
Trait theory is stated as;
Behaviour = Function of Personality
B = F (P)
Do we agree with this theory?
Drawbacks of Trait approach
The drawback with the trait approach is that in reality, behaviour is not always predictable. It does not account for the fact that people adapt their behaviour in response to a particular environmental situation.
Similarly, the influence that the environment and other people have on the shaping of personality is not considered.
Personality types and Narrow Band Theory Type A and B
Personality Types: Eysenk identified four primary personality traits or types. They are arranged in a two-dimensional model
Narrow Band Theory
Girando proposed there are two distinct personality types
Type A: Highly competitive, works fast, strong desire to succeed, likes control, prone to suffer stress
Type B: Non-competitive, works more slowly, lacking in desire to succeed, does not enjoy control, less prone to stress
Social Learning perspective
In direct contrast to trait theory, proposes that all behaviour is learned.
Learning occurs by way of environmental experiences and through the influence of other people.
Personality is, therefore, not genetically programmed.
Social learning theory is stated as
Behaviour = Function of Environment
B = F (E)
This theory was proposed by Bandura. Two processes are involved in social learning;
The behaviour of others being imitated through observation
New behaviour being acquired after observation, but only when it is endorsed through social reinforcement.
For example, a sports performer who is inexperienced may be inspired by the positive attitude and commitment displayed in training by an experienced player.
What are the drawbacks?

Main drawback with social learning perspective is that it does not take into account genetically-inherited factors
Interactionist approach
This approach is based on the work of Hollander. Hollander proposed that personality has three levels that interact to form personality.
Psychological core
Typical responses
Role-related behaviour
The effects of personality profiling on the adoption of a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle
A large volume of research has been undertaken into the relationship between personality and sporting behaviour.
Of most interest to you is the research into whether personality factors are associated with:
Participation in general
The choice of sport and physical exercise
Eysenk's personality questionnaire, proposed that people who were attracted to sport scored highly on the scales of extroversion and psychoticism.
Catell's 16PF test, found athletes to be more independent and less anxious than non-athletes but the two groups were not significant
Other studies despite finding no main differences between athletes and non athletes did find that athletes were more stable

Your views on personality profiling
A link between personality types and sport performance cannot be proved.
There is no evidence that an ideal sports personality exists.
Profiling results are often subjective.
Profiling results are often inaccurate and invalid.
The performer may unconsciously modify their behaviour to match the profile ascribed to them.
Where profiles are calculated using self-report questionnaire studies, the results are not always reliable, as performers may not answer all questions accurately.
There is a danger that profiling will stereotype a person.

Exam Questions
Use practical examples from sport to describe the characteristics of Type A and Type B trait personalities (4 marks)
Describe theories related to personality and how the affect sports performance. Evaluate critically personality profiling in sport (20 marks)
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