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Equilibrium

you are a leader in Chemical Industry and you have been charged with the task of setting up a new industry in switzerland. Obviously the publicity for this has to be handled very carefully as you know there will be a public outcry if this industry does no
by

Yana Niang

on 21 April 2010

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Transcript of Equilibrium

nitric acid
fertilisers
potassium nitrate
sodium nitrate
calcium nitrate
cobalt nitrate
explosives
trinitrotoluene
nitroglycerine
ammonium nitrate
laughing gas
80% anaesthetics used in dentistry and surgery
uses
nitrate salts
silver nitrate-in silver plating medicine
potassium nitrate-as a fertilisers
lead nitrate-to make special explosives eg. lead azide
strontium nitrate- red flares and fireworks
sodium nitrate-as a food additive
Ostwald Process

NH3
NO
NO2
HNO3

Health and Safety
Ammonia vapour must not be inhaled
continuous monitoring for leaks and spills
if pressure too low yield will drop
can cause severe burns to skin and eyes
must wear protective equipment and breathing apparatus
ratio of ammonian to air in the gas entering the converter is continuously measured and controlled to ensure it doesnt reach explosive conditions
level of nitrogen oxide gas must be monitered because inhalation of substance at relatively low concentrations may cause lung oedema and excessive exposure can be fatal
spills of the acid can be treated by isolating the acid with sand or earth and carefully neutralising it with calcium hydroxide or sodium carbonate
The reactions are very exothermic producing high quantities of heat. This excess heat will be reclaimed as steam and fed to an turbine system to generate electricity.
Due to the high temperatures and pressures the catalyst will slowly vaporize and be lost. Gases leaving the reactors will be filtered to remove the lost catalyst to avoid possible pollution.

http://www.absorblearning.com/media/item.action?quick=12d
Step 1: Desired reaction: 4NH3 + 5O2= 4N0 + 6H20
exothermic reaction.
to maximise the yield of the reaction platinum and rhodium catalyst are needed

Step 2:Desired reaction : 2N0 +02=N02
exothermic reaction
to maximise yield low temperature of about 50 c is needed
high pressure will drive the equilibrium towards the production of nitrogen IV oxide

Step 3: Desired reaction: 3NO2 + H20=2NHO3+NO
nitrogen IV is put into the absorbtion tower to dilute the gas into acid.
Full transcript