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Social Psychology - Agression
Transcript of Social Psychology - Agression
high expectations are not met
closeness to a goal
a person’s ability to retaliate Frustration can lead to
aggressive behaviour or
can increase the probability of an aggressive response. Frustration-Aggression Theory However, if the reason for the frustration is understandable, the tendency for aggression will be reduced. What causes aggression is not deprivation, but relative deprivation. The perception that you (or your group) have less than you deserve, less than what you have been led to expect or less than what people similar to you have. Provocation-Theory: Aggression frequently stems from the need to reciprocate after being provoked by aggressive behaviour from another person. If the provocation was unintended and the person is convinced it was, the person will not retaliate. Mitigating circumstances can also be a reason for not retaliating, but these must be known beforehand at the time of the confrontation. The Christian plea to “turn the other cheek” is great advice, but most people don't really take it. Aggressive stimulus theory: The mere presence of an object that is associated with aggressive responses can increase the probability of aggression. Experiment: Individuals who had been made angry in the presence of a gun behaved more aggressively than people who had a tennis racket lying there. Homicide rates in the US are twice as high as in Canada where strict laws on handgun-ownership are in place. The homicide rate in countries worldwide is highly correlated with the availability of handguns. Power of Social Learning Theory: We learn social behaviour (i.e. aggression) by observing others and imitating them. children can learn from: sports Children learn from sports that the more aggressive team tends to win more often. parents Children imitate their physically abusive parents and set a chain of abuse in motion. They learn that violence is an acceptable way to socialize their own kids. Media (TV, Movies, Games) A 12 year old has seen 100.000 acts of violence on screen.
58% of all TV programs contain violence. The effect accumulates over time and age.
Watching violence increases the frequency of aggressive behaviour in children.
It has the greatest impact on children who are prone to violence to begin with. The effects of media violence on violent behaviour are not limited to children alone. Repeated exposure to violence or unpleasant events tends to have a numbing effect on our sensitivity to those events in real-life. This can also have the unintended effect of increasing our indifference to victims. Influence of media violence on viewers’ aggression: Pornography and Violence against Women Theory:
Scripts are ways of behaving socially that we learn implicitly from our culture. Adolescents learn sexual scripts as they grow toward sexual maturity. The sexual scripts adolescents are exposed to suggest that the traditional female role is to resist the male’s sexual advances and the male’s role is to be persistent. Thank you for your attention! The US race riots of 1967 did not happen in the poorest areas. They happened in districts whose residents were slightly better-off but still in a poor position relative to white people. Presentation 13.12.2012 Social Psychology SA15VZ Stefanie Bernhofer Florian Bodenseher "nice guys finish last!" Nearly half of the students in a survey believed that if a woman says no, she doesn’t always mean it. This learned sexual script leads to 50% of all rapes in the US to be “date rapes” where the male refuses to take no from an answer. Does viewing pornography increase the incidence of rape? There is a difference in simple pornography and violent pornography simple pornography violent pornography Scientific research suggests that this is still an open question. consumption of violent TV higher level of aggressiveness The view of the world can also be altered – people assume the streets are as dangerous as seen on TV and have a greater fear of being assaulted. Therefore they tend to act more aggressively towards strangers. 1967 Detroit Riots started on July 23rd, 1967
lasted 9 days
2,509 stored looted or burned
412 buildings burned or demolished If the provocation is delivered in a harsh way people are more likely to retaliate than those who are spoken to nicely.