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* SUMMARY *
> The first reason for the idleness of the people is the climate.
- Rizal admitted that the Filipinos did not work so hard because they were wise enough to adjust themselves to the warm, tropical climate.
The Indolence of the Filipinos : "La Indolencia de los Filipinos"
Place of Publication: La Solidaridad in Madrid
Date of Publication: 1890 > Spanish reign - brought about a decline in economic activities beause of certain causes:
1st - The establishment of the Galleon Trade cut off all previous associations of the Philippines with other countries in Asia and Middle East.
2nd - Spain extinguished the natives' love of work because of the implementation of forced labor.
3rd - Spain did not protect the people against foreign invaders and pirates.
4th - There was a crooked system of education, if it was to be considered an education.
5th - The Spanish rulers were a bad example to despise manual labor.
6th - Gambling was established and widely propagated during those times.
7th - There was a crooked system of religion.
8th - The taxes were extremely high, so much so that a huge portion of what they earned went to the government or to the friars.
The Philippines, A Century Hence : "Filipinas de cien años"
Place of Publication: La Solidaridad in Madrid
Date of Publication: September 30, 1889 - February 1, 1890 - an essay written by Philippine national hero Jose Rizal to forecast the future of the country within a hundred years.
* SUMMARY *
> This essay, published in La Solidaridad starts by analyzing the various causes of the miseries suffered by the Filipino people:
1) Spain’s implementation of military policies - because of such laws, the Philippine population decreased dramatically.
2) Deterioration and disappearance of Filipino indigenous culture - when Spain came with the sword and the cross, it began the gradual destruction of the native Philippine culture.
3) Passivity and submissiveness to the Spanish colonizers - one of the most powerful forces that influenced a culture of silence among the natives were the Spanish friars.
> One question Rizal raises in this essay is whether or not Spain can indeed prevent the progress of the Philippines:
1) Keeping the people uneducated and ignorant had failed.
2) Keeping he people impoverished also came to no avail.
3) Exterminating the people as an alternative to hindering progress did not work either.
>Spain, therefore, had no means to stop the progress of the country. What she needs to do is to change her colonial policies so that they are in keeping with the needs of the Philippine society and to the rising nationalism of the people.
- What Rizal had envisioned in his essay came true.
- In 1898, the Americans wrestled with Spain to win the Philippines, and eventually took over the country.
- Five decades after Rizal’s death, the Philippines gained her long-awaited independence.
This was in fulfillment of what he had written in his essay: “History does not record in its annals any lasting domination by one people over another, of different races, of diverse usages and customs, of opposite and divergent ideas. One of the two had to yield and succumb.”
To The Young Women of Malolos Jose Rizal’s legacy to Filipino women is embodied in his famous essay entitled, “To the Young Women of Malolos,” where he addresses all kinds of women – mothers, wives, the unmarried, etc. and expresses everything that he wishes them to keep in mind.
“To the Women of Malolos” was originally written in Tagalog. Rizal penned this writing when he was in London, in response to the request of Marcelo H. del Pilar. The salient points contained in this letter are as follows:
The rejection of the spiritual authority of the friars – not all of the priests in the country that time embodied the true spirit of Christ and His Church. Most of them were corrupted by worldly desires and used worldly methods to effect change and force discipline among the people.
The defense of private judgment
Qualities Filipino mothers need to possess – as evidenced by this portion of his letter, Rizal is greatly concerned of the welfare of the Filipino children and the homes they grow up in.
Duties and responsibilities of Filipino mothers to their children
Duties and responsibilities of a wife to her husband – Filipino women are known to be submissive, tender, and loving. Rizal states in this portion of his letter how Filipino women ought to be as wives, in order to preserve the identity of the race.
Counsel to young women on their choice of a lifetime partner Rizal’s Message to Filipino Women
Jose Rizal was greatly impressed by the fighting spirit that the young women of Malolos had shown. In his letter, he expresses great joy and satisfaction over the battle they had fought. In this portion of Rizal’s letter, it is obvious that his ultimate desire was for women to be offered the same opportunities as those received by men in terms of education. During those days young girls were not sent to school because of the universal notion that they would soon only be taken as wives and stay at home with the children. Rizal, however, emphasizes on freedom of thought and the right to education, which must be granted to both boys and girls alike.