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Chapter 4A

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by

Jackie Looney

on 20 October 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 4A

4.1 - Energy Relationships
Bible Verse
Chapter 4A - Cellular Energy

Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds in the sky and all the creatures that move along the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food.” - Genesis 1:29-30
The Light-Dependent Phase
In Summary
The light-dependent phase uses light energy to form NADPH and ATP, and produces oxygen gas from the splitting of a water molecule.
The Calvin Cycle
Second phase in photosynthesis
ATP - Cell's Energy Currency
4.2 - Photosynthesis
The sun is the source of all energy on Earth
Autotrophs
- make their own food (organic energy source)
Examples: Plants, algae, and some bacteria
Examples: humans, animals, fungi, and most bacteria
Heterotrophs
- Depend on other organisms for their energy source
All lipids and starches store energy, but they can't release it all at once or the cell will die
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
- a small molecule used to store energy
In a working muscle cell, 10 million ATP molecules are used and regenerated every second!
Photosynthesis
- the process by which plants convert the light energy of the sun into stored chemical energy
Chlorophyll
- a green pigment that is the primary catalyst of photosynthesis.
Pigments
- special light-absorbing molecules.
Is made only when the cell has a supply of iron and is exposed to light.
The two primary pigments of photosynthesis, chlorophyll
a
and chlorophyll
b
, are found in the grana of the chloroplasts in photosynthetic eukaryotic cells.
The first phase of photosynthesis
Requires light energy
Takes place in the thylakoid membranes
Electron transport chain (ETC)
transports electrons to help form ATP
Photolysis
- splitting of a water molecule to form electrons, hydrogen ions (H+), and oxygen
The electrons and hydrogen ions bind with
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate
(NADP+) to create NADPH

Takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast
Stroma
- material within the chloroplast that surrounds the grana of structural defense
RuBP, Co2, ATP, and NADPH are used to create glucose
The Calvin cycle uses CO2, and the electrons and hydrogen ions from ATP, and NADPH to produce glucose.
In 60 seconds the same cell will have regenerated all of its ATP!
Full transcript