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A Brief History of Adult Stem Cells
Transcript of A Brief History of Adult Stem Cells
What if we could harness the therapeutic potential of adult stem cells?
The Brief History of
Adult Stem Cells
Cohnheim first hypothesizes the presence of adult stem cells in the bone marrow that are involved in wound healing.
150 Year History
Despite what the recent media attention might suggest, adult autologous stem cell research and therapy are not recent developments.
In fact, our understanding of these regenerative cells originates in the lab in the mid-1800s!
Cells making Cells
Artur Pappenheim describes stem cells as cells capable of generating the various cells within blood.
Ernest McCulloch and James Till confirm the existence of self-renewing cells in the bone marrow.
J. Cohnheim, “Über Entzündung und Eiterung,” Virchows Archiv A: Pathology. Pathologische Anatomie, vol. 40, pp. 1–79, 1867.
Pappenheim, 1908. Fol. Haematol., 5 (1908), pp. 511–524
J. E. Till and E. A. McCulloch. Radiation Research Vol. 14, No. 2 (Feb., 1961), pp. 213-222
Clinical Translation of MSC Therapies
Dr. Phillippe Hernigou, Chief of Orthopedic Surgery at the Henri Mondor Hospital of the University of Paris treats over 2,500 patients between 1990 and 2012 with autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC).
In one study, 53 of 60 total patients with non-union bone fractures who received BMC achieved a healing union within 4 months after treatment. 100% of patients receiving a threshold of regenerative cells achieved union.
Hernigou P, Poignard A, Beaujean F, Rouard H. Percutaneous autologous bone-marrow grafting for nonunions. J Bone Joint Surg 2005:1430–1437.
Induce Cell Proliferation
Adult stem cells are found to secrete growth factors and chemokines to induce cell proliferation for tissue regeneration. It is hypothesized that these signals are personalized according to an individual's genes, providing creedence to the philosophy of personalized medicine.
Promising Future for Patients
Adult autologous stem cells have been shown to act not only as regenerative entities, but also as "patient-specific drugstores" for injured tissue.
Adult stem cells are shown to promote construction of new blood vessels to feed regenerating tissue.
Adult stem cells are discovered to secrete an array of anti-inflammatory proteins in response to injury. They also have been shown to convert immune cells from a pro-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic state to an anti-inflammatory, pro-remodeling and tissue healing state.
Adult stem cells are shown to harness the native immune defense mechanisms in the body, in order to fight both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections.
In response to injury, many cells are programmed to "self-destruct". Adult stem cells are shown to reverse this process and rescue the dying cells.
These remarkably versatile cells will revolutionize clinical treatment methods and ensure that patients don't have to sacrifice a high quality of life to achieve pain relief.
Regulate Immune System
Adult stem cells are shown to be immunomodulatory. This means that they prevent the proliferation and function of many inflammatory immune cells, including:
Aggarwal S, Pittenger MF. Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate allogeneic immune cell responses. Transplantation 2005; 105: 1815–1822.
Natural killer cells
Haynesworth SE, Baber MA, Caplan AI. Cytokine expression by human marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells in vitro: effects of dexamethasone and IL-1 alpha. J Cell Physiol 1996; 166: 585–592.
Chen L, Tredget EE, Wu PYG, Wu Y. Paracrine factors of mesenchymal stem cells recruit macrophages and endothelial lineage cells and enhance wound healing. PLoS One 2008; 3: e1886.
Cselenya´k A, Pankotai E, Horva´th EM, Kiss L, Lacza Z. Mesenchymal stem cells rescue cardiomyoblasts from cell death in an in vitro ischemia model via direct cell-to-cell connections. BMC Cell Biol 2010; 11: 29.
Iyer S, Rojas M. Anti-inflammatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells: novel concept for future therapies. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2008; 8: 569–582.
Nijnik A, Hancock REW. The roles of cathelicidin LL-37 in immune defences and novel clinical applications. Curr Opin Hematol 2009; 16: 41–47.