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cloning

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Kiran Punia

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of cloning

Cloning To keep in mind... A connection Therapeutic 1. What is the difference between allowing the destruction of embryos for cloning and Hitler’s extermination of the Jewish population in Nazi Germany?

2. If we exhibit the ability to use cloning to treat a vast amount of diseases such as brain disease in humans, how far should we utilize this knowledge?

3. Is cloning able to successfully mimic the creation of a soul since this only comes from God? Artificial Embryo Twinning DNA Reproductive Reproductive cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. The first cloned animal was the sea urchin, cloned in 1885 by a scientist named Hans Dreisch. Types of reproductive cloning Egg and sperm are fertilized in a Petri dish where it forms an embryo. This embryo is manually separated into individual cells and allowed to develop and divide on its own. The two embryos are then placed into a surrogate mother, where it will develop in a full term pregnancy. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) A somatic cell is taken from the animal to be cloned and its nucleus is removed. Next, an egg is taken from a female and its nucleus is extracted and discarded. The somatic cell's nucleus is inserted into the empty egg, "activated" to start dividing, and reinserted into a surrogate mother where it will develop in a full term pregnancy. Belgium
Finland
New Zealand
Sweden
United Kingdom
Israel
Turkey Colombia China
Thailand
Singapore
South Korea
Japan United States Countries that allow, and therefore have no laws, on all types of cloning! Premature Aging
Low birth rate 0.5-6%(highly inefficient)
High rate of mortality
Inheriting diseases
Tumor growth
The Potential for Abuse
Wasteful, expensive process
Unethical and immoral to many religions
"Playing" God
Undermines the value of human life. Helping infertile couples
Creating vital organs
Protecting endangered species
Improving food supply
Could be used to treat cancers
Creating "champion" animals Disadvantages Advantages Therapeutic Cloning While these countries allow cloning, there are others that just ban reproductive cloning because it “ is punishable as a crime in the first degree”. But if therapeutic cloning is the production of human embryos for use in research, what difference did that country actually make?! You are killing a living human embryo anyway... The View of the Church Opposing Views Cloning • Therapeutic cloning is another phrase for the procedure known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

• Therapeutic Cloning: The word, “therapeutic” is a form of a code word. When the term "therapy" is used, one automatically thinks of treatment. But what kind of treatment lies within therapeutic cloning? Exploiting another human life to possibly treat another? All forms of cloning may lead to failed attempts (which occur VERY frequently) and the destruction of embryos- where therapeutic cloning always does. The nucleus is extracted from an egg. The nucleus contains the genetic material for a human or laboratory animal. Scientists, then take a somatic cell (any body cell other than a gamete-sperm or egg cell), and the nucleus is removed from this as well. This results in substitution as the egg now contains another person’s genetic material. *The extracted DNA is fused into the egg cell* These cells are stimulated to divide and shortly thereafter forms a cluster of cells and develops a blastocyst. • inner mass cells are separate and used to create embryonic stem cell lines, which are transferred to the parent and integrated into the tissues, then take on their roles

• outer layer normally-placenta Therapeutic Cloning: The process of SCNT Benefits • treat disease in any body organ or tissue is because as the blastocyst is developing into a human (stem cells)

• dramatically reduce the wait times for organ transplants well as rejected transplant therapy (when the patient’s body does not accept the transplant). This is because the person’s own DNA is used

• develop a better understanding of stem cells and how they and other cells develop.

• new treatments or cures for some of the common diseases affecting people today. It is said therapeutic cloning can be used for brain diseases, such as Parkinson's or even Diabetes. Disadvantages • involves the dismantling of the developing embryo

• The stability of the egg with the infused somatic nucleus is poor and it can require hundreds of attempts before this process of SCNT is successful. Some people agree that the pros outweigh the as it can be used in treating a vast amount of diseases for virtually any person with their own genetic background.
On the contrary, others have compared this destruction to an abortion. Still others state that this doesn't change the fact the embryo could potentially be a human being and so destruction of the embryo is no different than destruction of a human life. Some people agree that the pros outweigh the as it can be used in treating a vast amount of diseases for virtually any person with their own genetic background.
On the contrary, others have compared this destruction to an abortion. Still others state that this doesn't change the fact the embryo could potentially be a human being and so destruction of the embryo is no different than destruction of a human life. Morality and the Truth •the embryo is stripped of its life and dignity, cell by cell in order to be exploited and be used for another human, who already has life.

•A fragile person is used by someone with more power. The fact that human’s believe its okay to exploit another person (the embryo) just because they believe they are or have the authority to do so does not make us (the cloners) more superior to a developing embryo. • the only difference between the different types of cloning is the reason for which they are used. Therapeutic is in no way better than reproductive cloning, but can also be considered as the greater evil. • The Nazis stripped and abused people of the same race (humans) and felt they had superiority over this particular group. How is that any different from killing fragile little embryos who haven't lived to be their full potential yet? We are all the same race, yet people still believe they have more power over others and use it to their advantage. Seeing Double until this day, no human has been successfully cloned, that has been known of. The ability of being able to do such a thing arises not only conflict between policy makers and the ethical scientific field, but also forall of humanity, and how we will utilize all we know, and how far we are willing to take it. Cloning of human beings has been completely condemned by Catholic theologians and ethicists as immoral. The first part of the 1987 Vatican’s document addresses that human life begins at the moment of conception, and from that moment on, the embryo must be respected as a human being. The Catholic Church believes that by cloning, the researcher tries to seize the place of God, and sets himself up as the master of the destiny of others by showing manipukation and domination over the human embryo. The Catholic view is that a human being should be brought into this world through the sexual intimacy of a loving and committed couple, and not through some test tube. Some Christian conservatives even express concern that cloned embryos would have no soul, since it is, in their view, born outside of God's parameters as its creation is in a laboratory setting rather than natural conception. DNA CLONING - The Roman Catholic Church is adamantly opposed to any from of human cloning and has word to mobilize political opposition to it as well.

- Orthodox Christian churches (including the Russian and Greek orthodox churches) see no situation in which cloning human beings would be acceptable.

- "If human clones are bred for the egotistical reason of giving one person a second, third, a hundred or more lives, then a profound moral crisis arises… What sort of person would it be, knowing that he, of all people, was somebody's copy?" - Reverend Demetrios Demopulos

- Protestant views are very closely related to those of the Roman Catholic church. - Most traditional Muslims also reject the idea of human cloning. The Qu'Ran states that the creation of human beings results from the joining of the reproductive seeds of a husband and wife. Reproductive cloning, which by passes this union, is therefore considered unnatural and in opposition to Islam. page 6

- In the Hindu world cloning is not permitted because it violates the fundamental principle of Hinduism: "doing no harm to other creatures". Animal and Human cloning defy this principle because in animal cloning many animals die prematurely or have serious birth defects, by taking this into consideration scientists have speculated that the same could happen to human clones. page 7

- Although Buddhists may support all forms of cloning because they think its an easier way of reaching Nirvana(enlightenment) and ending all suffering "For some Muslims, however, therapeutic cloning may be permissible because of their belief that the embryo does not have moral standing until 120 days after conception. This traditional belief is also shared by many Jews, and was accepted by most Christians until scientific advances in the nineteenth century allowed the microscopic visualization of sperm, eggs, and fertilization, which revealed nascent life" page 7


Woodward, John. The Ethics of Human Cloning. Detroit, MI: Thomson/Gale, 2005. Print. For others, cloning is by far “one of the most exciting and important scientific breakthroughs of the 20th Century and should not be prohibited by the government”, states The Libertarian Party. Richard Seed, a former at Harvard states that “cloning is a legitimate treatment of infertility and can be used to replace a lost loved one with a twin". If we take a look at eugenics, there are many people who believe that the human race would be better off if specific traits were chosen and others removed. For example, one eugenics member of the American Eugenics Society stated that disease-causing genes could be eliminated through cloning; guaranteeing a healthier baby with enhanced vision and hearing, extreme intelligence, and an athletic figure. Just because they haven't developed communication skills or cannot express their pain, doesn't mean he/she is non-existent or should be neglected.We are all creations of God, no matter what stage in life nor how big or small. 1800 1901 1894 August Weismann proposed that the genetic information of a cell would diminish with each cell division. Hans Dreisch performed the first cloning procedure of a sea urchin. Hans Spemann split a 2-cell salamander embryo into two parts, which developed into two complete organisms. 1914 1972 1964 Hans Spemann performs the first successful nuclear transfer experiments. F. E. Steward successfully grew a complete carrot plant from a fully differentiated carrot root cell. This surprising result proved that cloning from differentiated cells was possible. Paul Berg of Stanford University created the first recombinant DNA molecules. 1990 2001 1996 The Human Genome Project began. This international project attempted to sequence the entire genetic makeup of humans, consisting of more than 3 billion nucleotides. Dolly the sheep, born on July 5 1996, was created using SCNT. Noah, the baby bull gaur, was the first endangered animal to be cloned. 1997 1998 President Clinton signed a five-year moratorium on the use of federal funds for human cloning. Dolly gave birth to three healthy lambs, conceived by natural mating. 2003 Dolly the sheep was put down by a lethal anesthetic injection. She suffered from lung cancer and severe arthritis. She was six and a half years old. - Other terms used when referring to DNA cloning can be "recombinant DNA technology", "molecular cloning", and "gene cloning". - During the DNA cloning process the transfer of a DNA piece from one organism to become a self replicating genetic element happens. This technology has been around since the 1970s, and it has become a common practice in molecular biology labs today. - Plasmids (self-duplicating molecules) and other types of cloning methods were used by Human Genome Project researches to make enough identical material to further study. - To "clone a gene" the strand of the DNA that is going to be cloned must first be removed from the rest of the chromosome using restriction enzymes. When this strand is then attached to its cloning vector in the lab, it becomes "recombinant DNA cloning". - Besides plasmids other compounds used during the cloning process can be:
- Viruses
- Bacteria artificial chromosomes (BACs)
- Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs)
- Cosmids (artificially constructed)
- Bacteria (often used as host cells in recombinant DNA molecules)
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