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GIS, Alberta & Land Use

Introduction to GIS and Spatial Literacy.
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Larry Laliberte

on 31 May 2016

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Transcript of GIS, Alberta & Land Use

AREC 400 Land Use Economics
January 7, 2016
Larry Laliberte
Geospatial Data Services Librarian
The Join:
Analysis
Visualization
Integration
GIS Research Process
Gathering
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Acquiring and processing data can take upwards of 80% of GIS project development
Online Sources
Field Data & Other Sources
digital information structured through methodology for the purpose of producing new knowledge
Data:
National Research Data Archive Consultation - Phase One: Needs Assessment Report May 2001
ac_001 = Cattle ranching and farming
ac_002 = hog and pig farming
ac_003 = Poultry and egg production
ac_004 = Sheep and goat farming
ac_005 = Other animal production
Importance to a book
table of contents, figures, illustrations, appendices, verso, pagination, citations, index, headings, page breaks, footnotes, end notes, bibliography
Section One: Identification
Originator
Publication_Date
Title
Abstract
Purpose
Time_Period_of_Content
Currentness_Reference
Progress
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency
West_Bounding_Coordinates
East_Bounding_Coordinates
North_Bounding_Coordinates
South_Bounding_Coordinates
Theme_Thesaurus
Theme_Keywords
Access_Constraints
Use_Constraints
Point_of_Contact
Contact_Organization (preferred) or Contact_Person
Contact_Position
Address_Type
Address
City
State_or_Province
Postal_Code
Contact_Voice_Telephone
Section Two: Data Quality
Logical_Consistency_Report
Completeness_Report
Process_ Description
Process_Date
• If source data were used:
Source_Originator
Source_Publication_Date
Source_Title
Source_Online_Linkage
Source_Scale_Denominator
Type_of_Source_Media
Source_Time_Period_of_Content
Source_Currentness_Reference
Source_Citation_Abbreviation
Source_Contribution
Section Three: Spatial Data Organization Information
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method
Section Four: Spatial Reference Information
Horizontal_Datum
Ellipsoid_Name
Semi-Major_Axis
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio
Horizontal Coordinate System (compound element)
If Geographic (Lat/Lon):
Latitude_Resolution
Longitude_Resolution
Geographic_Coordinate_Units
or
If Planar (projected) data:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method
Abscissa_Resolution
Ordinate_Resolution
Planar_Distance_Units
If Map Projection:
Map_Projection_Name
< projection parameters – vary with Projection >
or
If Grid Coordinate System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name
< coordinate system parameters - vary with Coordinate System>
• Additional elements are required for data maintained using:
Distance_and_Bearing_Representation
Local_Planar_Horizontal_Coordinate_System
Local_Horizontal_Coordinate_System
Vertical_Coordinate_System
Section Five: Entity and Attribute Information
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview
and/or
Entity_and_Attribute_Detailed_Description
Section Six: Distribution Information
Distributor_Contact
Contact_Organization (preferred) or Contact_Person
Contact_Position
Address_Type
Address
City
State_or_Province
Postal_Code
Contact_Voice_Telephone
Distribution_Liability
Section Seven: Metadata Reference
Metadata_Date
Metadata_Contact
Contact_Organization or Contact_Person
Contact_Position
Address_Type
Address
City
State_or_Province
Postal_Code
Contact_Voice_Telephone
Metadata_Standard_Name
Metadata_Standard_Version
Federal Geographic Data Committee
http://www.fgdc.gov/
identification, citation and currency assessment of the data
Descriptive Metadata
describing the spatial references (projection, datum, scale)
Technical Metadata
processing history and provenance of the data (code, scripts, geoprocessing work flows)
Preservation Metadata
Sources for Data :
International :
Global Data Explorer : http://gdex.cr.usgs.gov/gdex/
GIS Data Depot : http://data.geocomm.com/
Canada :
Alberta :
Edmonton :
Geogratis : http://geogratis.cgdi.gc.ca/
GeoBase : http://www.geobase.ca/
AltaLIS : http://www.altalis.com/prod_base_bound.html
Archive-It : http://wayback.archive-it.org/2901/20120418171112/http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/pubs.aspx?series=dig
City of Edmonton Open Data Catalogue : https://data.edmonton.ca/
http://guides.library.ualberta.ca/geospatial-data-maps
Statistic Canada :
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html
An integrated system of data, software, hardware, people and workflows used to answer questions, make decisions, and provide tools to create, share, and use geographic information
Source: Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI)
thegisworld.blogspot.com
http://geolojay.com/blog/2011/02/09/interactive-online-gis-tool/
tabular, vector, raster
Data with a
spatial
component can be used in GIS
Data in a table (Rows and Columns)
Address
Postal Code
Latitude/Longitude
Unique Identifier (UID)
8 Smith Street
2 Smith Street
10 Smith Street
Geocoding
T5J 2V4
Address
Postal Code
DMTI Spatial - CanMap RouteLogistics
DMTI Spatial - Enhanced Postal Code file
1 Smith Street
9 Smith Street
GPS (Points & Tracks)
collects x,y (sometimes z) coordinates
Spatial Data exists as a Geographic file and can be visualized as Vector Data (Points, Lines & Polygons)
Geographic Data
2011Census consolidated subdivision (CCS)
CCSUID

Linked by a unique identifier found in both data sets
Attribute Data
2011 Census of Agriculture
UID
http://www.automation-drive.com/EX/05-13-03/pic068.jpg
Raster data consists of a matrix of cells (or pixels) organized into a grid and each cell contains a value representing information, such as temperature, elevation, reflectance values and land cover classes.
This Raster data can be organized, overlaid and analyzed using GIS.
Remote Sensing
Raster Data
Using Imagery and Raster Data in ArcGIS - ESRI Video
http://video.esri.com/watch/76/using-imagery-and-raster-data-in-arcgis
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon, without making physical contact with the object.
Land Cover and Change Detection
Satellite image data enable direct observation of the land surface at repetitive intervals and therefore allow mapping of the extent and monitoring and assessment of :
The $855 million LDCM spacecraft is the eighth satellite in the history of the Landsat program, that has been monitoring forest loss, glacial retreat, urban sprawl and other phenomena continuously since Landsat 1 lifted off in July 1972.
Resolution
60 &30m
10m
GeoBase : http://www.geobase.ca/geobase/en/find.do?produit=cded
AltaLIS Mediated Data Access (Contact GIS Librarian)
"Here be Dragons" of Spatial Literacy : Scale, Projection & Metadata
used to denote dangerous or unexplored territories
1:1,000,000
1:50,000
Large Scale 1:1,000
Small Scale 1:5,000,000
Coastline
Road
Mercator Projection
Peters Projection
More on map projections : http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj_f.html
http://www.radicalcartography.net/?projectionref
Robinson Projection
the data about the data
Spatial Buffering
GIS
geographical framework
spatial filter
database architecture
relationships
patterns
linkages
people
data management
research process
visualization
manipulation
buffering
joining
dissolving
metadata
overlay
resolution
projection
scale
Tabular (Attribute Data)
vector
raster
tabular
Edmonton
Calgary
aggregation
Vector (ABMI)
Raster (AAFC)
dem
remote sensing
clip
Public -- Free -- GeoBase
Licensed -- Cost -- AltaLIS
licensed
open source
proprietary
spatial literacy
Highway 2
AGRASID Version 3.0
GIS
geographical framework
spatial filter
database architecture
relationships
patterns
linkages
people
data management
research process
visualization
manipulation
buffering
Joining
dissolving
metadata
overlay
resolution
projection
scale
vector
raster
tabular
aggregation
dem
remote sensing
clip
licensed
open source
proprietary
spatial literacy
Google: University Alberta Spatial Data
Acronym for geographic information system. An integrated system of data, software, hardware, people and workflows used to answer questions, make decisions, and provide tools to create, share, and use geographic information.
Sources, Projection, Scale, Metadata
The feature in a layer have the same theme, geometry, and set of attributes.
GIS, Alberta & Land Use
Data Drives GIS
Attributes are associated with each vector feature
Polygons
Lines (Polylines)
Points
A shapefile (.shp) stores the shape and location of the vector data (points, lines, polygons)
Attribute data is stored in the (.dbf) file
Also a lookup index (.shx) file

All would have the same prefix
AB_water_2014_50k.shp
AB_water_2014_50k.dbf
AB_water_2014_50k.shx

All of these files must be kept together in the same file directory/folder

Other files may also be in the directory

projection definition (.prj)
spatial index files (.sbn) and (.sbx)
metadata files (.txt .html .xml)
Common Geoprocessing Tools
"Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things.
Tobler's first law of geography
geodiscover.alberta.ca/‎
place
hysical
ocation
motional
space
attern
onnections
modeling
metadata
Standard Alberta Provincial Projection
NAD_1983_10TM_AEP_Forest
s p r e a d s h e e t s
.ivt .dbf .xsl ASCII/tab/txt .csv .xml .dat .spv
A Data Management Plan describes your data files, your plans for data storage, and rules for sharing your data.
Tips:

Copy the website address for future reference
Look for readily useable, or easily imported, file formats
Check for projection information (.prj)
Download (or ask for) metadata
(.txt file, MS Word document *.doc, Excel spreadsheet *.xls, Adobe Acrobat *.pdf, or *.XML file)
Data Acquisition (Finding and Gathering)
VECTOR
Geodatabase (.gdb)
ESRI Shapefile (.shp, .shx, .dbf)
ArcInfo coverage
PC ARC/INFO coverage
TINDXF, DWG, DGN
KML, KMZ (Google Earth)
RASTER
Geodatabase Raster
ESRI GRID
ERDAS Imagine (.IMG)
Windows Bitmap (.BMP)
JPEG File Interchange Format, (.JPG)
LizardTech MrSID (.SID)
Tagged Image File Format, TIFF (.TIF)
GeoTIFF with .tfw World File
TABULAR
Geodatabase Table
Text file (.TXT, .CSV)
DBASE file (.DBF)
INFO table
http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/fdd/descriptions.shtml
The most frequently imported data formats supported in ArcGIS include the following:

INPUT FORMAT

OUTPUT FORMAT
Atlas Geo file (.AGF)
MapInfo Interchange Format (.MIF) ESRI Shapefile

ArcInfo export interchange file (.E00)
Spatial Data Transfer Standard SDTS
Point Profile (.TVP) ArcInfo Coverage

Spatial Data Transfer Standard SDTS
Raster Profile (RSDF, LDEF)
ASCII
US Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED)
USGS Digital Elevation Model (.DEM) ESRI GRID
Life is transitional your data need not be
Data Management & Preservation
naming conventions, backup, and metadata practices
Why Preserve GIS Data
Modeling Change
Legal Mandate
Historic Mapping
Cost of Reproduction
Disaster Recovery
Benefits of GIS Data
Useable
Distributable
Searchable
Remix-able
Accessible
Digital Geospatial Data is more fragile than Analog
Digital Preservation Points of Failure
Data is not saved, or ...
can't be found, or ...
media is corrupt, or ...
format is obsolete, or ...
file is corrupt, or ...
meaning is lost (big issue for GIS topology)
Naming Conventions
be consistent
File names should be as descriptive as possible without being verbose
short_n_punchy
Do NOT use spaces in any of the file names including the directory paths

instead use the underscore character

"_"
Temporal studies that capture spatial datasets over time shall contain information pertaining to the date or a sequence of observations in the file names.

i.e Environmental datasets such as fire scar locations over different seasons - 2003 - 2004
Reporting Temporal Information in File Names
All base data file names should have scale information incorporated

-- drainage_50k.shp indicates the scale of the shapefile is 1:50 000
-- roads_25k.shp for 1:25 000 scale
Reporting Scale in File Names
Fires scar locations for 2002
fires_scars_2002

Fires scars locations for 2003 captured at a 1:50000 scale
fires_scars_03_50k

Fires scars locations for 2004 captured at a 1:500000 scale
fires_scars_04_500k
(more on scale later)
Study area abbreviations as prefixes – it may be hard to keep track of multiple datasets when combining data from different geographic regions
Fires scar locations for 2002 at a 1:50000 scale in Alberta
AB_fire_scars_02_50k
Bulk Rename Utility is a free file renaming software for Windows. Allows you to easily rename files and entire folders based upon extremely flexible criteria. (windows only)
http://www.bulkrenameutility.co.uk/Main_Intro.php
Backup BPs (Best Practices)
an alternate storage device (server, secondary/external hard drive or at minimum a separate location on your single hard drive)

Backup Method:

Use an archiving program to ZIP each day’s work into a new file
At the end of each working day, zip up the entire working directory and save it using a filename with today’s date and the project name; e.g. yyyymmdd_projname1.zip
Continue working on the main directory but create new zip at the end of each day
Google Drive
http://guides.library.ualberta.ca/geospatial-data-maps
http://www.abmi.ca/home/data/welcome-data-portal.html?scroll=true
Lining Up Data in ArcGIS:
A Guide to Map Projections,2nd Ed.

http://www.esri.com/esri-news/releases/13-1qtr/esri-press-publishes-new-edition-of-lining-up-data-in-arcgis
Geographic Co-ordinate System:
WGS84 (World Geodetic System of 1984)
EPSG 4326
Commonly used by organizations that provide data for the entire globe - used by most web-based mapping engines (Google Maps)

Projected Co-ordinate System
NAD_1983_10TM_AEP_Forest
EPSG 3400

The common projection system for Alberta

http://gothos.info/2011/04/common-map-projection-definitions/
http://www.epsg-registry.org/
http://www.epsg-registry.org/
NAD 1983 10TM AEP Forest
GCS North American 1983
data projected in latitude/longitude
Many Map Types Useful in Research
Topographic Maps
Exploration Maps
Fire Insurance Plans
Panoramic Views
Nautical Charts
Cadastral (City/Town) Maps
Transportation Maps
Survey Plans
County Atlases
Aerial Photography
Gazetteers/Directories


Projection

Any method of representing a sphere (3D) on a flat surface (2D)
Map projections distort the surface in some fashion
Projections are a mathematical statement of this distortion

http://www.jasondavies.com/maps/transition/
Map Projection Transitions :
Table 12.2 Categorized spatial concepts in TeachSpatial lexicon from
Space in Mind Concepts for Spatial Learning and Education
Edited by Daniel R. Montello, Karl E. Grossner and Donald G. Janelle. 2014
Scale
1cm = 100 000cm or 1km
Geospatial Analysis - 5th Edition, 2015 - de Smith, Goodchild, Longley
http://www.spatialanalysisonline.com/HTML/index.html
the print era
The term ‘GIS’ is widely attributed to Roger Tomlinson, who used it in 1963 to describe their activities in building a digital natural resource inventory system for
Canada
AB_CCS_AGRC_2011_LU_POP_91_11.zip
Using the search feature learn more about Add Join, Spatial Join, Buffer, Clip, Intersect, Union, Merge, Dissolve. Once you pull the feature up click on tool help to read more. (Before Next Thursday)
http://landsatapp.s3-website-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/
The Landsat Thematic Bands Web Mapping Application in ArcGIS Online
http://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/ae61f47e-8bcb-47c1-b438-8081601fa8fe
Visualization
Population
Cartogram
is a map in which some thematic mapping variable – such as travel time, population, or Gross National Product – is substituted for land area. The space of the map is distorted in order to convey the information of this alternate variable.
Obesity
Probably the best statistical graphic ever drawn, this map by Charles Joseph Minard portrays the losses suffered by Napoleon's army in the Russian campaign of 1812. Beginning at the Polish-Russian border, the thick band shows the size of the army at each position. The path of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow in the bitterly cold winter is depicted by the dark lower band, which is tied to temperature and time scales.
http://blog.revolutionanalytics.com/2009/05/mapping-the-seven-deadly-sins.html
Mapping the seven deadly sins
Greed: Average incomes versus total inhabitants below the poverty line
Envy: Total number of thefts (robbery, burglary, larceny, and stolen cars)
Wrath: Total number of violent crimes (murder, assault and rape) per capita
Lust: Sexually transmitted diseases per capita
Gluttony: Number of fast-foot restaurants per capita
Sloth: Expenditures on arts, entertainment and recreation versus rate of employment
Pride: An average of the six other sins
GiZScore is the Z-Score from the Gi* test for spatial clusters
US Census Data (County Level)
Title: Comparative Heights of the Principal Mountains and Lengths of the Principal Rivers of The World (1823)
Where pics are taken in San Francisco by tourists (
red
) and locals (
blue
)
Map of scientific collaboration
http://olihb.com/2014/08/11/map-of-scientific-collaboration-redux/
http://www.submarinecablemap.com/#/
http://lotrproject.com/map/#zoom=3&lat=-1460&lon=1500&layers=BTTTTT
http://lotrproject.com/projects/periodictable/
http://littourati.squarespace.com/storage/kerouac-files/kerouac_map.htm
interactive map of middle earth
1. Choose a topic
2. Define the problem
3. Conduct a literature review
4. Develop a hypothesis
5. Develop a conceptual frame work
6. Chose research methods
7. Collect and prepare the
data
8. Ground truth (verify the data)
9. Analyze the data
10. Share the results
Stages of Sociospatial Research for Deductive Research
https://portagenetwork.ca/

Karen E. Smoyer-Tomica, John C. Spencea & Carl Amrhein. Food Deserts in the Prairies? Supermarket Accessibility and Neighborhood Need in Edmonton, Canada. The Professional Geographer Volume 58, Issue 3, 2006. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9272.2006.00570.x

Haoluan Wang, Feng Qiu and Brent Swallow. Can community gardens and farmers' markets relieve food desert problems? A study of Edmonton, Canada. Applied Geography Volume 55, December 2014. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.09.010
census data
https://landuse.alberta.ca/LandUse%20Documents/South%20Saskatchewan%20Regional%20Plan_2014-07.pdf
western
Marshall Islands stick chart
charts represented major ocean swell patterns and the ways the islands disrupted those patterns
bit.ly/16g4ZUz
Margaret Wickens Pearce. Framing the Days: Place and Narrative in Cartography. Cartography and Geographic Information Science. Volume 35, Issue 1, 2008.

Voyageures structured their landscape with their own measures of distances
... the distances that a canoe could travel in a day. Each day was broken into "pipes" or smoking breaks... a pipe was a break but also the distance between breakes

Songs were also another temporal unit translated to horizonaltal movement
... North West Company voyageur Alexander Ross bragged... that he could paddle 50 songs in a day...
Cha Chay Pay Way Ti’s Map of the Waterways of a Part of Northern Manitoba (1806)
This is a fascinating map of a complex area of waterways between Cumberland House and Split Lake, and shows how greatly the European explores were assisted by the natives in finding their way through the lake country of northern Canada.
https://www.flickr.com/photos/manitobamaps/2184928901/
Original map by John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854, drawn and lithographed by Charles Cheffins.
Digital Dark Age
bit.ly/1RvkImz
ArcToolbox -- Conversion Tools -- From Raster --
(Raster to Polygon)
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