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Plant Families

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by

Heidi Clark

on 16 December 2010

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Transcript of Plant Families

Mint Mustard Pea Buttercup Gentian Borage Lily Sunflower Rose Carrot Poppy Characteristics Nightshade Examples Aconitum columbianum Monk's Hood Aquilegia truncata Columbine Delphinium spp. Blue Larkspur Coptis trifolia Gold Thread Anemone spp. Anemone Cimicifuga racemosa Black Cohosh Ranunculus spp. Buttercup Clematis Clematis Hydrastis Goldenseal Patterns Seem to be patternless: No set numbers of stamens, pistils, sepals, or petals Parts not fused to each other Many simple pistils at center with hooked tips Properties Taste: Acrid and Bitter Poisonous Inflammatory Constituents Terpenoid alkaloids Glycosides Helleborus Hellebore Medicinal Actions External analgesics Counter-irritants Diaphoretics Vasodilators Diuretics Sedatives Ranunculacea Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Examples Brassica spp. Mustard Capsella Shepherd's Purse Erysimum Wallflower Nasturtium aquaticum Watercress Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Kohlrabi, Brussel sprouts Raphanus sativus Radish Brassica oleraceae Examples Chichorium -Chicory Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) (Picture) Taraxicum -Dandelion Arctium -Burdock Centaurea -Bachelor's
Buttons Silybum -Milk Thistle Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Examples Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Asteraceae (Compositae) Daisy Lamiaceae Boraginaceae Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Parsley Fabaceae Rosaceae What appear to be sepals are actually modified leaves Flowers made up of several distinct, small flowers with their own sepals and pistils Petals are flowers themselves Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Ambrosia -Ragweed Achillea -Yarrow Anthemis -Chamomile Chrysanthemum -Daisy Tanacetum -Tansy Eupatorium -Boneset Liatris -Gay Feather Arnica -Arnica Petasites -Butterbur Echinaceae -Purple Coneflower Helianthus -Sunflower Rudbeckia -Coneflower Aster -Aster Bellis -Wild Daisy Grindelia -Gumweed Solidago -Goldenrod Taste: Bitter Seeds contain oils Roots contain inulin (starch) Fibonacci spiral in center Many yellow-colored flowers Anti-inflammatory Vulnerary Diaphoretic Diuretic Antispasmodic Astringent Inulin polysaccharides Minerals: iron, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium Volatile Oils Resins Tannins Patterns Properties Constituents Medicinal Actions Square stalks Opposing leaves 5 united sepals 5 united petals Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Patterns Constituents Medicinal Actions Properties Parts Used (Picture) Rosmarinus -Rosemary Lavandula -Lavender Origanum -Marjoram Mentha -Peppermint,
Spearmint,
Mint Thymus -Thyme Teucrium -Germander Satureja -Savory Marrubium -Horehound Ocimum -Basil Agastache -Giant Hyssop Hedeoma -Pennyroyal Hyssopus -Hyssop Leonurus -Motherwort Lycopus -Bugleweed Monarda -Bergamot Scutellaria -Skullcap Stachys -Betony Volatile Oils (esp menthol) Diaphoretics Vasodilators Astringent Taste: Anthelmintics Emmenagogues Nervines Antimicrobials Tannins Zigadenus elegans -Death Camas Veratrum -False Hellebore Tulipa -Tulip Allium -Onion, Garlic, Chives, Leeks Smilax -Sarsaparilla Asparagus -Asparagus Convallaria -Lily of the Valley Polygonatum -Solomon Seal Trillium Aloe References: Elpel, TJ. Botany in a Day: The Patterns Method of Plant Identification. 5th edition. Pony, MT: HOPS Press, LLC; 2006 Inula -Elecampane Sulfur glycosides 4 petals, 4 sepals, 6 stamens Petals look like an "X" or an "H" Petal split often gives appearance of 8 petals Seed pods form spiral around stalk Crushed leaves smell like mustard Weedy Inhabit barren soil Taste: Bitter Stimulating in small amounts Irritating in large amounts Warming Dispersive External Irritant Stimulant 5 sepals, 5 petals, several stamens (often multiples of 5) Serrated, oval-shaped leaves Rubus -Red Raspberry Fageria -Wild Strawberry Potentilla -Silverweed Agrimonia -Agrimony Alchemila -Lady's Mantle Geum -Avens Rosa -Rose Spirea -Meadowsweet Patterns Parts Used Properties (Picture) Constituents Artemisia -Sagebrush, Wormwood, Tarragon Monocotyledon Leaves have parallel veins Petals, sepals, pistils are multiples of threes 6 stamens Alkaloids Sulfur glycosides Roots often mucilaginous, contain inulin polysaccharides Saponins Digestive stimulants Expectorants Demulcents Antihypertensives Borago -Borage Heliotropium -Heliotrope Symphytum -Comfrey Lithospermum -Stoneseed Hairy 5 petals, 5 sepals, 5 stamens 4 nutlets Astringent External astringent poultices Mucilaginous Emollient Diaphoretics Tannins Alkaloids (small amounts) Mucilaginous polysaccharides Diuretics Blood purifiers Emetics Vulneraries Capsicum -Red Pepper, Bell Pepper,
Chili, Jalapeno, Cayenne,
Tobasco Datura -Jimson Weed Hyoscyamus -Henbane Lycium -Wolf Berry Nicotiana -Wild Tobacco Solanum -Nightshade, Potato, Eggplant Medicago -Alfalfa Cassia -Senna Baptisia -Wild Indigo Lupinus -Lupine Astragalus -False Indigo Glycyrrhiza -Wild Licorice Trifolium -Clover Astringent Mucilaginous Tannic acids Malic acids Laxatives Diuretics Sesquiterpene lactones Pungent
Bitter
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