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Transcript of Margaret Mahler
Separation-Individuation Theory of child development
1. Normal Autism (birth – 2 mo)
2. Symbiosis (2mo – 5mo)
Separation Individuation phase is broken up into 4 parts:
3. Differentiation (5mo-10mo)
4. Practicing (10 to 18 mo)
5. Rapprochement (18-24 mo)
6. Object Constancy (2-5yrs)
Margaret S. Mahler Pediatric Research Foundation
APA Agnes Purcell McGavin Award in 1969
APA Distinguished Service Award 1981
The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant (1975).
Infantile Psychosis and Early Contributions Vol. 1
On Human Symbiosis and the Vicissitudes of Individuation roll Infantile Psychosis (1969)
"Psychoanalytic Evaluation of Tics"," Infantile Process", "Autism and Symbiosis", and "Two Extreme Disturbances of Identity".
She assisted in writing "Memoirs of Margaret Mahler" until her death in the fall of 1985
Margaret Mahler was a woman who overcame many obstacles in her life time, the main two being her sex (female) and religion (Jewish). She went on and obtained a medical degree and became a doctor, which few women did in the early 1900's. She made many contributions to the area of child development that are still used today by doctors and new parents.
Applegate, J. S. (1988). Alone together: An application of separation-individuation theory to conjoint marital therapy. Clinical Social Work Journal, 418-419.
Bergner, S. (2009). Review of 'Margaret Mahler: A biography of the psychoanalyst'. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 397-399.
http://www.margaretmahler.org/foundation/index.html. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Margaret S. Mahler Psychiatric Research Foundation: www.margaretmahler.org
Mahler, M. S., Pine, F., & Bergman, A. (1975). The psychological birth of the human infant. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Meissner, W. W. (2000). Freud and psychoanalysis. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Pine, F. (1986). Margaret S. Mahler, M.D.: In memoriam. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 101-103.
Pine, F. (2003). Mahler's concepts of "symbiosis" and seperation-individuation: revisited, reevaluated, refined. The Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 511-533.
Pinker, S. (2013). George A. Miller (1920–2012). Cambridge, MA: US: American Psychological Association.
Schneider, S. (1992). Separation and individuation issues in psychosocial rehabilitation. Adolescence, 137.
Schwartzman, G. (2006). The subjectivity of the mother in the mother–son relationship. Attachment, separation, and autonomy. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 226-232.
Therapy, G. (2013, 07 30). http://www.goodtherapy.org/famous-psychologists/margaret-mahler.html. Retrieved from www.goodtherapy.org: http://www.goodtherapy.org/famous-psychologists
Margaret Mahler (1897-1985) born in Hungary.
Father : Gustav Schonberger, Jewish Physician.
Rejected by her mother.
Zeitgeist of her time
: Education was limited for women, especially in male-dominant fields like the sciences & Jewish persecution was in full effect, WWII.
University of Budapest- MD (1917)
Germany - Pediatrician (1922)
Vienna - Started work in Psychoanalysis
1929 was certified as Psychoanalyst.
Margaret S. Mahler Pediatric Research Foundation founded in 1970.
Traveled to different countries to avoid persecution while getting her education
Suffered from low-self-esteem
Child- development / self experience
Paul Mahler - husband