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deciduous forests

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jessica krafka

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of deciduous forests

deciduous forests
Producer
: White Oak Tree

primary consumer: white-tail deer
secondary consumer: RED FOX
HABITAT

Prairies, forests, swamps, and agricultural fields (acadia national park).
population size
900,000-1,000,000white tail deer
in Minnesota each year(minnesota DNR).


Each year Minnesota hunters harvest 150,000-200,000 white tail deer(Minnesota DNR).
Reproduction
behavior
White tail deer mate from November to early December and their young are born seven months later usually its two fawns per doe (Minnesota forest industries).
Nutrition

The diet of a white tail deer consists of acorns, corn, soybeans, mushrooms, grasses, tree leaves, buds, twigs and bark, wild grapes, apples, different types of shrubs(minnesota biomes).


food web position
HETEROTROPH
Nutritional requirements

SPRING: lots of protein, sodium, calcium and phosphorus.

SUMMER: high protein

WINTER: lots of fats and carbohydrates

FALL: fats, carbohydrates, lots of calcium
(Minnesota biomes)

SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL INSULTS
Deer have few natural predators and are managed primarily through hunting. As their populations in certain areas increases, so does disease and parasites that can ultimately cause widespread die-offs(Minnesota biomes)
HUMAN USEFULNESS / ATTRACTIVENESS
Humans hunt deer for recreational activities, and to control the population( minnesota DNR).
SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
The white tail deers' symbiotic relationship is parasitism. the deer tick relies on three huge helpings of blood everyday, although it does not kill the deer it is still parasitic because it harms the deer by sucking it's blood. (Ehow).
HABITAT
The red fox has many different habitats
varying from mature forests to open fields(Minnesota forest industries).

POPULATION SIZE
The red fox population has grown to about 100,000 in Minnesota (Minnesota DNR)

REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR
Red fox mate in the month of February and give birth approximately 52 days later to about 5 t0 10 pups(Ehow).
NUTRITION

The diet of a red fox includes
rats,mice,rabbits, ground squirrel, birds, snakes, fish, insects, berries, nuts, and seeds. A favorite of the red fox are young fawns( minnesota forest industries).
FOOD WEB POSITION
the red fox position on the food web

HETEROTROPH
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
The red fox is an oppurtunistic eater, it's diet varies based on what's available at the moment. the red fox may have preferences on meat or fruits. Considering these conditions the red fox still needs to consume at least a half kilogram of meat or it's equivalent in fruits and berries every day (minnesota biomes).
SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL INSULTS
Red fox have a few predators such as gray wolves, eagles, mountain lions, bears, and humans. outbreaks of sarcoptic mange can often kill of large numbers of red fox(minneosta dnr)
SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
The plant benefits because the Spined seeds stick to the fur of the fox and spread out to reproduce, the fox is not gaining any benefit nor losing anything. therefore being a Commensalism(minneosta biomes).
HABITAT
Decomposer: Earthworm
POPULATION SIZE
REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR
FOOD WEB POSITION
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL INSULTS
HUMAN USEFULNESS
EXAMPLE OF A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
HABITAT
POPULATION SIZE
REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR
NUTRITION
NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL INSULTS
HUMAN USEFULNESS/ ATTRACTIVENESS
EXAMPLE OF A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
DECIDUOUS FOREST
CLIMATE
SURFACE CONDITIONS
FOOD WEB
ENERGY PYRAMID
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT
the average temperature in the deciduous forest is between 39-45 degrees fahrenheit.

average rainfall is between 30-60 inches.

seasons usually last anywhere between 100-130 days.

there is about 60%-80% humidity( FOREST DIVIDED).
soil texture
a deciduous forest has typically four to five layers
water
freshwater sources:
lakes and ponds occur frequently within the forest(minnesota biomes).
forest tributaries:
forest streams and small rivers form their own habitats that support and nourish several different types of wildlife(minneosta biomes).
topography
why are gypsy moths called an invasive species in Minnesota?
Where did the gypsy moth come from?
What do gypsy moths do in a forest setting?
how is the introduction of the gypsy moth going to impact your producer?
how is the introduction of the gypsy moth going to impact your primary consumer?
how is the introduction of the gypsy moth going to impact your secondary consumer?
how is the introduction of the gypsy moth going to impact your decomposer?
WHAT CAN BE DONE TO MAKE SURE THAT THE GYPSY MOTH WILL NOT HARM THE BALANCE IN YOUR FOREST?
topography- the arrangement of the natural
and artificial physical features of an area.
The gypsy moth can defoliate trees, repeated defoliation can kill the tree. Gypsy moths are nonnative there are very few species that can keep it's population under control(gypsy moths).
The gypsy moth came from Europe(minnesota biomes).
In a forest setting the gypsy moth defoliates the trees, it seems to favor oak and aspen trees (minneosta DNR).
The gypsy moth could cause stress to the oak tree and in turn cause root rot which can kill the tree(minnesota DNR).
The gypsy moth could hurt the white tail deer because they could contract Lyme disease from the moth(Minneosta DNR).
invasive species report
The gypsy moth is not going to impact the fox because the fox is a predator of the gypsy moth(Gyspy moths)
Unfortunately because the gypsy moth is not a native insect to the untied states there is not much we can do to control it's continuous destruction of our forest( Minnesota DNR).
White Oaks trees are abundant in southeastern Minnesota and also as far north as the Twin Cities, Whtie Oaks form many woodlands in these parts of Minnesota. The White Oaks become less abundant northward to Mille Lacs and northwestward to the vicinity of St. Cloud. These Trees arabe sent in the northern and western parts of the state. You are most likely to find White oak trees in heavy well-drained acidic soil ( White oak).
White oaks are
abundant in the southeastern
part of the state as far north
as the Twin Cities (White oak).
The transformation of a tiny acorn into a huge oak tree comes after many chains of events. Before an oak can grow to a old age, nature has to help the process of pollenation, fertilization and dispersal of the seeds. The Oak tree reproduction takes place between spring and autumn (nature).



White Oaks prefers rich, deep, moist, well-drained, acidic soils, but adapts well to dry and average soils that are neutral to slightly alkaline in pH. White oaks do great in full sun to partial sun but can be very shade tolerant in its youth( White oak).
The white oak is an atuotroph because it produces its own food in the food chain the white oak is one of many producers in deciduous forest (NATURE)
Somethings that can insult the White Oak tree are Gypsy moths, Golden Oak Scale, Weevils, and Honey Mushrooms. Also we as humans have an impact on White Oak trees by how much we use the wood of the White Oak (White oak).
http://www.flickr.com/photos/4bernd/1816626705/?rb=1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-tailed_deer
http://www.123rf.com/photo_9636085_a-newborn-whitetail-deer-fawn-attempting-to-hide.html
http://vermicomposters.ning.com/profiles/blogs/composting-crushed-acorns-in-a
http://growyourownmushrooms.net/
An example of symbiotic relationship is between a White Oak tree and a squirrel, the squirrel takes the fallen acorns from the tree or the ground and carry them in there mouth and burrys the nut in the soil this helps the tree spread out there acorns so the so the producer being the orginal tree doesnt have to compete for nurtrients and water with its young (NATURE).
http://depositphotos.com/2150463/stock-photo-Ripe-red-apples-on-a-tree.html
http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/white_oak.htm
http://www.the-whitetail-deer.com/Whitetail-Deer-Doe-1.html
The most common uses for White Oak is wood lumber, furniture, paneling, flooring, railroad ties, fenceposts, mine timbers, caskets, barrels, shingles, baskets, and firewood. It is also planted in yards and parks as a shade tree. But can grow very large and can live to be as old as 500 and and 100 feet tall and can have a 4 foot trunk (White oak).
http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/white_oak.htm
http://www.netstate.com/states/symb/trees/ct_white_oak.htm
www.nhdfl.org
earthworms live in moist soil, they also
enjoy soil close to freshwater and saltwater shorelines. (biome comaprison).
there may be as many as 50,000 earthworms in an acre of moist soil(buzzle).
the earthworms usually mate between early spring and late fall(The earthworm).
heterotroph
decaying roots and leaves nermatodes, protozoans, bacteria and fungi. the earthworm can consume up to one thrid its weight in food every day(Earthworms!).

earthworms will come to the surface only on cloudy days and at night unless their is heavy rainfall( the earthworm).
These burrows create pores through which oxygen and water can enter and carbon dioxide can leave the soil.Earthworm casts are also very important in soils and are responsible for some of the fine crumb structure of soils(ehow).


the earthworm goes through the soil, and aerates it. aerating th soil is good for plants because it provides minerals and co2 to get to the roots faster. the earthwrom is nuetral becuase it is neither harmed nor helped in this situation.
this is commensalism (EHOW).
DECIDUOUS FOREST
NUTRITION
feeds on orgaic matter from the soil and plant matter(division of forestry).
https://sites.google.com/site/juliaspondlife/home/macroscopic
http://www.redwormcomposting.com/2007/05/
http://franmart.blogspot.com/2011/09/worm-farming-again.html
http://www.weekendhippie.com/home/2009/04/my-first-worm-composting-bin.html
http://www.learner.org/jnorth/spring2003/species/robin/Update040103.html
http://etc.usf.edu/clippix/picture/decaying-roots.html
http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/heavy-rainfall-1905-pictures.htm
http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/paleontology/mailinevo.html
http://kissmytractor.blogspot.com/2013_05_01_archive.html
location
http://www.stephsnature.com/lifescience/ecologyunit.html
weather
There are four distinct seasons spring, summer, winter, fall. summers are usually mild at an average 75 degrees. winter has an average temperature below zero. it has fairly mild springs and autmns( Acadia national park).
http://ths.sps.lane.edu/biomes/deciduous3/deciduous3.html
geology
http://webs.anokaramsey.edu
BIOTIC FACTORS
ABIOTIC FACTORS
birch trees
oak trees
eastern chipmunks
red tailed hawk
least weasel
white tailed deer
coyote
carpet moss
lady pine
common lime
rocks
soil
sunlight
air
water
hills
temperature
air masses
the gypsy moth will not effect the earthworm(Ehow).
http://www.unitedcountry.com/TimberlandProperty/SouthCarolina/results.htm
http://blogs.lifeandscience.org/keepers/2008/12/16/
http://www.redbankgreen.com/2013/05
http://www.pheasantcrest.com/Old%20Site/Deer%20Hunting.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ixodes_scapularis
http://animel-information.blogspot.com
http://www.optimara.com/doctoroptimara/diagnosis/mice.html
http://www.acuteaday.com/blog/tag/baby-deer/
http://livelovefruit.com/2012/10/health-benefits-of-berries/
human usefulness
the red fox is useful for it's fur(fur trap).
http://www.merlinshideout.com/shop/products/hides/fox/
http://www.ebay.com/itm/
http://www.arkive.org/eco-regions/eastern-deciduous-forest/
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/156081/
http://freshaquarium.about.com/od/photocontests/ig/Editor-Favorites---Volume-1/Freshwater-Pond.htm
http://freshaquarium.about.com
http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/fitting_algae.html
http://temperate-deciduous-forest-biome-project.yolasite.com/energy-flow.php
https://www.icmag.com/ic/showthread.php?t=228590
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymantria_dispar_dispar
http://tcpermaculture.blogspot.com/2013/02/permaculture-plants-oak.html
http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/pubs/oakpests/p48.html
http://www.frmheadtotoe.com/2012/10/fox-halloween-tutorial.html
http://vet.tufts.edu/wildlife/Interesting_Fox.html
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
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