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Prez Comm 11- Fallacies
Transcript of Prez Comm 11- Fallacies
When Fallacies are not an error, but are meant to mislead.
Studying fallacies and understanding rational arguments protects us from
the scary sophists
9. Red Herring- Irrelevant information used to
distract someone from the actual issue.
"Don't vote for Hillary because emails."
10. False Dichotomy- the oversimplification of
an argument to an either/or scenario.
"Either raise tuition or risk student lives."
11. Appeal to Tradition- assumes that old is automatically better than new.
"The rules of baseball should never chance"
12. Appeal to Novelty- assumes that new is automatically better than old.
"Baseball is better with new rules like
"an error in reasoning"
If a persuader makes a fallacious argument, then they have the
to correct it.
Basically, fallacies are weak/bad arguments.
Four Rules of Fallacies
1. If you make a mistake in
reasoning, fix it.
2. Never ever manipulate
3. If you are calling out fallacies, explain your reasoning
4. Calling out fallacies won't
get you out of burden of clash
The Two Sides of Fallacy
1. Fallacy as Incorrect Logic
the arguer has simply
made a mistake in reasoning.
"If a, then b" is a hypothetical
where substance of argument is wrong, not its form.
Example- "If it rains, then the streets will get wet."
Although true, you cant assume that if streets are wet that it rained.
The Two Sides of Fallacy
Trump's claim that there were 3 million illegal voters is his argument against losing the 2016 popular vote
Trump's rhetoric was taken as either
completely ridiculous, or plausible.
The less people that believe a sophist argument, the less powerful it is.
Basically, sophistry is "fake news"
1. Begging the Question- circular reasoning
Here, you assume a claim true because
because of the initial claim itself.
2. Slippery Slope- the assumption that one
action will cause a terrible chain reaction.
"Voting for Trump will lead to nuke war."
3. Appeal to Authority- a claim is true
because an expert says it is.
"More doctors smoke camels
than any other cigarette."
4. Appeal to Popularity- a claim is true
because it is popular.
"Trump won the election so
we should build a border wall."
5. Post Hoc Ergo Prompter Hoc-
assumes causal relationship among
events because they might be related.
"You caught a cold because you
went outside with wet hair!"
6. Ad Hominem- criticizing the person
or arguer as opposed to their argument.
"Don't vote for crooked Hillary."- Trump
7. Appeal to Pity- arguments that illicit pity
that tend to dull the reasoning skills.
"With just .25 cents a day, you too can
make sure animals aren't neglected or abused."
8. Hasty Generalization- a conclusion reached
without sufficient evidence.
"Brenda is unintelligent because
she is a blonde from Poland."
Debate Prep and Deliver
Makeup Speeches (Thursday)
Policy Speeches (Week 16)
Outside Evaluation (Week 16)