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Body Art Group Project

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by

Katie Hildreth

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of Body Art Group Project

by Savita. Melissa, Katie and Kaitlin BODY ART Why are people getting Tattooed?
General Motivations: a) symbol for past event, friend, or love b) group membership c) mark of individuality
New Motivations: a) "human canvas" b) rise in popularity due to science, body image, and pop culture. Tattoos are being mainstream.



Studies show that tattoos specifically in adolescence correlate with risk taking: increase in drug and alcohol, sexual activity, suicide and illegal activity. Demographics
Tattoo Parlors/ Tattoo Studios with Tattoo Artists create a glamorous feel to the idea of getting body art. A tattoo is now seen as a fashion statement, nothing more than a piece of jewelery. Media and Tattoo Image Change Any Stigma surrounding the ancient body art has faded various groups of people are getting "tatted" up, so many more people than the traditional biker or gang member. Pew Research Study states: more than 1/3 people between 18 and 25 have a tattoo. Tattoo designs are becoming less meaningful and more fashionable. People are getting the same symbols as celebrities or certain tribal markings with unknown meanings. Less focus has been put on the meaning and more on the "coolness" factor that the tat brings Health Implications No federal or state law that specifically addresses tattoos for health care professionals
Tattoo regulation is determined
by the healthcare setting (Durning, 2012).
Online poll on the
American Nurses Association
official website ("The Display of Tattoos," 2011). Professional Constraints
in Health Care Settings In 2012, there was an outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacteria infections traced back to contaminated tattoo ink (LeBlanc, 2012).
Occurred in multiple states and from in ink from multiple companies
Needed prolonged treatment in many cases
Some infections were antibiotic resistant
Most common complication of tattoos is cellulitis, an inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue. Rarely, vasculitis can occur, which is a swelling of the blood vessels. The picture is of hypersensitivity vasculitis caused by a tattoo in an otherwise healthy young man (Hessert, 2011) .
FDA lists the following as additional risks (“Think,” 2009):
Infections, like hepatitis and HIV, through dirt needles
Allergies to the ink used
Rarely, burning occurs in the tattoo during an MRI.
Scarring can occur both when getting or trying to remove a tattoo
Granulomas: small bumps that form around things that the body perceives as foreign (in this case the tattoo pigment)
Risks of body piercing include: “infection, pain, bleeding, hematoma formation, cyst formation, allergic reaction, hypertrophic scarring, and keloid formation.”
Interestingly, college students actually overestimated the prevalence of these risks in a 2007 study (Schorzman, 2007). Ta tatau: “appropriate, balanced, and fitting," (Kaatz, Elsner, & Bauer, 2008, p. 35)
Tattooing is “the insertion into the skin of any coloring materials designed to leave a semipermanent or permanent mark” (Chalmers, 2009, p. 102).

Cultural motivations:
A symbol of an important past event, love, or friendship
Group membership
Drive for survival, Impact of war
A marker of individuality
Newer generations: body art is sexy & beautiful, a form of celebration, display of fitness
Larger population densities
New advancements in healthcare

Body modifications are common in many cultures
African culture has lip, neck, and ear stretching and piercing (act of beauty)
In New Guinea, the Roro people are extensively tattooed- a lack = “raw” (Elbin, 1979)

Men and women with more body modifications reported more frequent alcohol intoxication, more traffic tickets, and more marijuana use then their “unadorned” counterparts
Earlobe piercing is common among women in Western society
College students reported body piercing as less socially acceptable and attractive on themselves than on others (Schorzman, 2007).
Previous assumptions: workplace would never allow tattoos
Now those making the hiring decisions are younger and have adopted new traditions about workplace appearance
Bankers, lawyers, accountants, clergy vs. advertizing, marketing, sales, technology
Gender bias
Lower perception of professionalism of female providers with tattoos compared to male providers Cultural & Ethnic Implications Developmental Pros & Cons Ethical Implications References Brigham and Women’s Hospital- no "prominent uncovered tattoos" ("Brigham and Women's Hospital").
Vanderbilt University Medical Center prohibits
“Visible or gross tattooing on face, neck, arms or hands; tattoos 1 inch in size - graphic/disturbing, e.g., displaying violence, drugs, sex, alcohol, tobacco products.” ("Vanderbilt University Medical Center").
Providence St. Vincent’s Hospital in Oregon allows tattoos (Kaufman, 2011).
CONCLUSION TO THE PROBLEM: Although tattoos are increasingly common, we were unsure about the future implications of getting body art. As young people, tattoos are generally accepted but if we decide to get a tattoo we have to be very aware of the consequences. These include more immediate consequences, like infections and other health issues, as well as long term factors that we may not be thinking a lot of now, like employment. Examples of Dress Codes November 13, 2012
Brigham and Women's Hospital: Human resources policies and procedures. (2008). Retrieved November 10, 2012, from http://www.brighamandwomens.org/about_bwh/humanresources/Documents/Policies/HR-108_Dress_%20Code_Hygiene123109.pdf

**Carmen, R. A., Guitar, A. E., & Dillon, H. M. (2012). Ultimate answers to proximate questions: The evolutionary motivations behind tattoos and body piercings in popular culture. Review Of General Psychology, 16(2), 134-143. doi:10.1037/a0027908

**Chalmers, C. (2009). Charting the existence and approaches to management of the tattooing and body piercing industry—A historical overview. Journal of Infection Prevention, 10, 102–105. doi:10.1177/1757177409105075

Durning, M. (2012). Too tattooed to be a nurse? Retrieved November 10, 2012, from http://scrubsmag.com/too-tattooed-to-be-a-nurse/

Elbin, V. (1979). The body decorated. New York, NY: Thames & Hudson

**Hessert, M., & Devlin, J. (2011). Ink sick: Tattoo ink hypersensitivity vasculitis. American Journal Of Emergency Medicine, 29(9), 1237.e3-4. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2010.08.030
 
Heywood, W., Patrick, K., Smith, A., Simpson, J., Pitts, M., Richters, J., & Shelley, M. (2012). Who Gets Tattoos? Demographic and Behavioral Correlates of Ever Being Tattooed in a Representative Sample of Men and Women, Annals of Epidemiology, 22(1), 51-56. Doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.10.005.
 
Jackowitz, Ann (2012, July 12). Justin bieber New Tattoo shows increasing popularity of body art. Retrieved from http://www.policymic.com/articles/11439/justin-bieber-new-tattoo-shows-increasing-popularity-of-body-art

**Kaatz, M., Elsner, P., & Bauer, A. (2008). Body-modifying concepts and dermatologic problems: Tattooing and piercing. Clinics in Dermatology, 26, 35–44. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2007.10.004

Kaufman, K. (2011). Tattoos: Still a stigma in the workplace? Retrieved November 10, 2012, from http://www.unogateway.com/opinion/tattoos-still-a-stigma-in-the-workplace-1.1752096#.UKBQpI5c_wx

LeBlanc, P., Hollinger, K., & Klontz, K. (2012). Tattoo ink-related infections--awareness, diagnosis, reporting, and prevention. New England Journal Of Medicine, 367(11), 985-987.

.Schorzman, C. M., Gold, M. A., Downs, J. S., & Murray, P. J. (2007). Body art: attitudes and practices regarding body piercing among urban undergraduates.JAOA: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 107(10), 432-438.
 
Singh, Gunjan (2010, September 11). People with tattoos are perceived to be less credible than those without tattoos. Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/article/people-with-tattoos-are-perceived-to-be-less-credible-than-those-without

**Schorzman, C., Gold, A., Downs, J., & Murray, P. (2007). Body Art: Attitudes and Practices Regarding Body Piercing Among Urban Undergraduates. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 107,10, 432-438.

Tattoos (2007). Inside PMB. National Institute of Health. 1-4. http://ctep.cancer.gov/branches/pmb/inside_pmb/aug2007.pdf

The display of tattoos is not allowed in the workplace according to online poll. (2011). Retrieved November 10, 2012, from http://www.nursingworld.org.proxy.bc.edu/HomepageCategory/NursingInsider/Archive_1/2011-NI/Sept11-NI/HYS-Aug2011Poll.html

 Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?. (2009). U S Food and Drug Administration Home Page. Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm048919.html

Thomas, Megan (2010, June 23). Body art seen less of a workplace barrier. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38379503/ns/business-careers/t/body-art-seen-less-workplace-barrier/#.UKB6L0KRnww

Vanderbilt University Medical Center dress code policy. (2007). Retrieved November 10, 2012, from http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/root/vumc.php?site=vanderbiltnursing&doc=13152

Zelyck, Lorne. (2005). Under the Needle: An Ethical Evaluation of Tattoos and Body Piercings. ChJournalristian Research 6th ser. 28: 1-8. Web. Zelyck, (2005). Schorzman, et al. (2007). Shows on TLC focus on the reality of owning a Tattoo parlor and make the viewers think it would be cool to get a tattoo. Celebrities do not hide their tats on the red carpet and create the sensation that tattoos are not scary and need to be expressed. Anyone from a soccer mom to a Harvard graduate is getting a tattoo, preconceptions are no longer valid Australian Study on who gets tattoos: Sexual identity not a factor, More education decreased likely hood of being tattooed, age 20-40 most likely, tradesmen>professionals. Singh. (2010) Carmen, et al. (2012). Jackowitz. (2012) Heywood, et al. (2012)
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