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Transcript of World History
Chapter 25 Websites: ~World History Book ~http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/urban.html -http://sks.sirs.com/cgi-bin/hst-article-display?id=SKEY123-0-2774&artno=0000216402&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=Child%20labor%201800%27s&title=Why%20Johnny%20Can%27t%20Work&res=Y&ren=N&gov=N&lnk=N&ic=N One Invention was...Railroads Industrialization Pace of industrialization accelerated rapidly in Britain.
By the 1800's, people could earn higher wages in factories than on farms- with this money, more people could afford to heat their home with coal from Wales and dine on Scottish beef. They also wore better clothing.
Before Industrialization people lived in rural ares, but they shifted towards cities.
The shift was caused by the growth of the factory system, the manufacture of goods was placed in a center location of the city.
London was Britain's most important city- provided a vast labor pool and market for new industry.
Throughout the industrialization the Living conditions worsened, working conditions were longer, and the child labor became as worse as ever.
Even through, this people were happier, and new jobs were being created everyday. Also inventions and new technology were excelling . By: Elizabeth, Annie, Rachel, Leah, Sarah and Rachael Cities Rise Balance shifted towards cities after the 1800's
Between 1800 and 1850 the number of European cities rose 47%
Urban areas doubled in population
Period was a time of urbanization -city building and the movement of people to cities Causes of rapid city growth:
*No development plans, sanitary codes, and building codes
*Lack of education, housing, and police protection
*No paved sreets, drains, and garbage collection Middle Class Made up of skilled workers, professionals, business-people, and wealthy farmers
Transformed the social structure of Great Britain
Some middle class became wealthier than landowners and aristocrats
Evenually a lager middle class emerged
Upper middle class was made up of doctors, government employees, lawyers, and managers
Lower middle class was made up of toolmakers, mechanical drafters, and printers Working Conditions Factory owners wanted to keep their machines running as long as possible
Most workers spent 14 hours, 6 days a week at work
Factories were often not will lit and dirty causeing many dangers
Children would work in factories instead of going to school Connecting the Chapter http://www.xtranormal.com/watch/14266146/world-history-presentation-3 http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Corporations/Hx_Corporations_US.html -Business owned by stockholders
-Share profits and not personally responsible for debts
-Able to raise large amounts of money needed to invest in industrial equipment
-Large corporations: Standard Oil and Carnegie Steel Company
-Giant corporations controlled industries
-Workers earned low wages, stockholders earned high profits, corporate leaders made a fortune
-There were far fewer corporations then, but they were enormously powerful: the Massachusetts Bay -Company, the Hudson's Bay Company, the British East India Company
-They weren't allowed to participate in the political process. They couldn't buy stock in other corporations
-Economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions with no interference
-Stemmed from French economic philosophers
-Favors free market unregulated by government
-Believed if government allowed free trade, economy would prosper
-gov. regulations only interfered with production of wealth
-idea that nations grow wealthy by placing heavy tariffs Form of complete socialism in which in which
all production would be owned by the people
Private property would not exist
All goods and services would be shared equally
First phase of Marx’s plan for the future Workers joined together in voluntary labor associations
Union spoke for all the workers, bargained for better conditions and higher pay
Union would strike, refuse to work, if owners refused their demands
Corporation Then Corporation Now
- Only a few major companies - Almost all companies involve
- Workers had low wages - Laws give people fair wages
- Linked with stock market
- Corporation owners earn huge profit Socialism Socialism is a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Karlmarx discovered the genreal ideas of socialism but later found out it also followed the lines of Communism, but both are similar. Capitalism: Is a political system in which factories, companies, land, etc are owned pricately in order to create a profit of the owners.
It was many greed
It had became clearer with the stock exchange, banks, and great disparity in wealth during the in dustrial revolution.
In 1776 Adam Smith, wrote a book on Captialism explaning it in more detail.
It was defined more in the industrial revolution because individuals moved off farms and gave up small shops to move to the city and work in factories. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is the theory that government actions are the only useful if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Many Utilitarian's pushed for reform on legal and prison reforms. They also pushed for equality among people and opposed the idea of differences in wealth.
With the industrial revolution and growth of capitalism Utilitarian's raised concerns about factory working conditions.
Jeremy Bentham, modified the ideas of Adam Smith and began the philosophy of Utilitarianism. He believed the government should try and promote the greatest of good.
John Stuart Mill Was a philosopher and economist who led the utilitarianism movement in the 1800's.
Was against capitalism.
This was a concernn in Britian and American, two countries that adopted capitalism. http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/what-is-marxism-faq.htm http://sks.sirs.com/cgi-bin/hst-article-display?id=SCA3741-0-4545&artno=0000317726&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=Marx%2C%20Karl%20%281818-1883%29&title=In%20These%20Troubled%20Economic%20Times%2C%20Maybe%20Marx%20Is%20Worth%20a%20Look&res=Y&ren=N&gov=N&lnk=N&ic=N http://www.adamsmith.org/wealth-of-nations Day of a Child Laborer: Laissez Faire Corporation Capitalism Compare and Contrast Communism Unions Compare & Contrast Child Labor Today:
organizations are trying to stop it Child Labor 1800's:
common for most kids
no one went to school
no laws against it Both:
In places where its common not much inproved still today
to save on labor cost Before 1840, Railroads track age was 2,818 miles, by 1890 the total track age was 208,152 miles.
Railroads played a major role in America's industrialization.
Cites expanded because of the railroad system- Chicago stockyards and Minneapolis grain industries prospered by selling products to the rest of the country through the railroads.
the railroads themselves was a business- by the end of the 1800's a limited number of large, powerful companies controlled more than two-thirds of the nations railroad tracks.
Business of all kinds began to merge as the railroads had become bigger.
Smaller companies joined together to become a bigger and more powerful.
Building larger business through the railroads required a great deal of money, which was handled by corporation. Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution: Refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700's
Name was given by a German Fredrick Engels in 1844
Enclosures: One of the fenced in or hedged in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formally worked by village farmers
Enclosures had two important results:
- Tried new agricultural methods
- Large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers
Landowners experimented with more productive seeding and harvesting methods to boost crop yields Inventions Jethro Tull invented the seed drill about 1701
The seed drill allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths instead of scattering seeds across the ground
Flying shuttle- wove a piece of cloth faster
Cotton gin Crop rotation Crop rotation- The system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land
Process improved upon older methods of crop rotation, such as the medieval three- field system
Was to control erosion, promote soil fertility, contain plant diseases, prevent insect infections, and discourage weeds
Rotated wheat, barley, root crop (turnips) and nitrogen- fixing crop (clover) then livestock grazed on clover
Adding the nitrogen- fixing crop and manure improved soil fertility Preview to this Prezi: Compare and Contrast Difference between farming then and farming now is that technology has improved, such as tractors and ways to collect the crops. Land is bigger and costs more now and back then it was small. Both: Crop rotation
Used domesticated animlals
A way of living and feeding families Compare and contrast: Industrial Revolution: Both: Enlightenment: New ideas
Was all around the world New inventions
Started in Britain Spread quickly all around the world Adam Smith Professor at the Univerity of Glasgow, Scotland
Believed that if the government allowed the flow of trade in world trade without any regulations by the government, it would cause the economy to flourish
Wrote The Wealth of Nations
supported letting owners of a business set the working conditions without interference. (Didn't support unions)
Wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776. It contained his ideas of a free market
Had three natural laws, supported his ideas of laissez-faire
people work for their own good, no for others
competition forces people to try to outdo each other by making better products
supply and demand
Only enough goods will be produced to meet low prices and meet the the demand of the good. Believed natural law governed economic life
His ideas helped with the creation of capitalism (an economic system that the factors are of the production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit).
Didn't support the idea of helping the poor working class by creating minimum wage laws, and better working conditions
He thought it would clash with his ideas for a free market, it would lower profits, and weaken the production of wealth in the society Adam Smith cont. Karl Marx introduced a socialism called Marxism
outlined ideas in The Communist Manifesto
argued that human societies have always been divided into warring classes
according to him, the Industrial Revolution enriched the wealthy and made the poor even more poor
predicted the workers of the factories would overthrow the owners
People today are still looking at his works to help with their own modern day crisis. Marxism A type of socialism
The main idea is that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be a public ownership
Also expresses his thoughts of the ruling class acting as a dictactorship to the under classes, and only those classes being ruled can change their state. Compare and Contrast Adam Smith vs. Karl Marx Adam Smith
created a type of capitalism
claimed that the Industrial Revolution could benifit everyone Karl Marx
created a type of socialism
claimed that the Industrial Revolution would add a reason for those in power to oppress the workers Both
Wanted a prosperous nation of wealth http://www.xtranormal.com/watch/14259548/beginning-one Compare and Contrast Railroads/Trains Both Cars railroad tracks
large train cars
ran by coal-heating of it
Bigger transportation of people
trans. of goods
created during the industrial age runs on gas
only needs roads
fits less people
not as many goods are transported though cars Compare and contrast.
Capitailism and Socialism. In capitalism is about individuals and buisniesses own property and the means of production.
In socialism the community or the state should own property and the means of production.
Capitalism progress results when individuals foillow their own self-intrest (mostly greed).
Progress resluts when a community of producers cooperate for the good of all (mostly equal).
They both have to have a strong government.
They both make money for the government. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS We think our topic is most important because the Industrial Revolution was the start of it all. Without this revolution, they wouldn't have the inventions that made all the businesses grow, then the economy, and then a whole country.