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The Effects of Child Abuse on Preschoolers

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Kaitlyn Danielle

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of The Effects of Child Abuse on Preschoolers

The Effects of Child Abuse on Preschoolers
Sexual Abuse
Sexual abuse is defined by Papalia and Feldman (2011) as "any sexual activity involving a child and an older person" (p. 161).

Warning signs of sexual abuse in children:
Difficulty in walking or sitting
Avoidance of undressing or choosing to wear extra layers of clothes
Disturbed sleep patterns
Unusual or age-inappropriate interest in sexual matters
Promiscuity or seductive behaviors
Thumb-sucking, bed wetting, or other regressive behaviors
Child having an STD or becoming pregnant
Torn, stained, bloody underclothes
Frequent, unexplained sore throats, yeast or urinary infections, bruised or bleeding genitalia, vaginal or anal region (Childabuse.org).
Emotional Abuse
Neglect
Effects On Physical Development
Effects On Cognitive Development
Effects on Emotional Development
Effects on Social Development
Sources:
Sources:
Sources:
Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/child_abuse_physical_emotional_sexual_neglect.htm

Papalia, D. E. & Feldman, R. D. (2011). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

Recognizing Child Abuse. 2013. Retrieved from http://www.childabuse.org/page.aspx?pid=229


Sources:

Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/child_abuse_physical_emotional_sexual_neglect.htm

Papalia, D. E. & Feldman, R. D. (2011). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Recognizing Child Abuse. 2013. Retrieved from http://www.childabuse.org/page.aspx?pid=229
Sources:
Sources:
Sources:
Sources:
Wiggins, C., Fenichel, E., & Mann, T. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/Children-CPS/litrev/part1.htm
Kaitlyn Alexander, Katie Brown, Leigh Ann Lamb, & Victoria McKee
Physical Abuse
Physical Abuse is injury to the body through punching, beating, kicking and burning (Papalia & Feldman, 2011, p. 161)

Warning signs of physical abuse in children
• Frequent injuries or unexplained bruises, welts, or cuts.
• Is always watchful and “on alert,” as if waiting for something bad to happen.
• Injuries appear to have a pattern such as marks from a hand or belt.
• Shies away from touch, flinches at sudden movements, or seems afraid to go
home.
• Wears inappropriate clothing to cover up injuries, such as long-sleeved shirts
on hot days.
• Behavioral extremes (withdrawal, aggression, regression, depression).
• Unusual shyness, wariness of physical contact.
(helpguide.org)

Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/child_abuse_physical_emotional_sexual_neglect.htm

Papalia, D. E. & Feldman, R. D. (2011). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Recognizing Child Abuse. 2013. Retrieved from http://www.childabuse.org/page.aspx?pid=229

Definition, Scope, and Effects of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/sexabuse/sexabuseb.cfm#star4

Papalia, D. E. & Feldman, R. D. (2011). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Recognizing Child Abuse. 2013. Retrived from http://www.childabuse.org/page.aspx?pid=229

Preschoolers with abuse are likely to have avoidant, anxious, atypical attachment relationships
Generally have more negative attitudes
They will not show empathy towards peers when their peers are upset
Also, can cause conflict with peers and friends
Will often play by themselves and have difficulties starting social interactions
Not able to control behavior & children with physical abuse will take on more aggressive behavior
Least liked in the classroom by peers and have fewest friends
Major effects that will impact preschool age children:

*They may have delayed physical growth and be small in stature.
*They may become sick more often than other children, mainly in
the upper respiratory illnesses, such as colds and flus.
*Also, they may have digestive problems.
*They may have poor muscle tone, and poor motor coordination. *Their gross and fine motor may be clumsier and less refined.
*Many of their gross motor skills may be delayed or even absent.
(Effects of Abuse and Neglect on Development)

Abusive head trauma is most common on babies, but these babies may grow up to have neck and spinal cord damage.

Impaired brain development affects children in many ways. Failure for the brain to mature properly can affect the child’s cognitive, language, and academic skills. Mental health disorders are also common for abused children (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2013, p. 4).


Effects of Abuse and Neglect on Development. Retrieved from http://www.dshs.wa.gov/ca/fosterparents/training/chidev/cd05a.htm
Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect.
Retrieved from http://www.dshs.wa.gov/ca/fosterparents/training/chidev/cd05a.htm

Neglect Abuse, which is the most common type of abuse, is the failure to meet the child's basic, such as food, clothing, medical care, protection, and supervision. (Papalia & Feldman, 2011, p. 161)

Warning Signs of Neglect Abuse
Clothes to do not fit well or are dirty
Consistently bad hygiene
Untreated illness or injuries
Frequently late or absent from school
Always hungry
Height and weight sufficiently low for age level
Emotional Abuse:
Sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never hurt me? Contrary to this old saying, emotional abuse can severely damage a child’s mental health or social development, leaving lifelong psychological scars.

Examples of emotional child abuse include:
* Constant belittling, shaming, and humiliating a child.
* Calling names and making negative comparisons to others.
* Frequent yelling, threatening, or bullying.
* Ignoring or rejecting a child as punishment, giving him or her the silent treatment.
Warning signs of emotional abuse in children
* Excessively withdrawn, fearful, or anxious about doing something wrong.
* Does not seem to be attached to the parent or caregiver.

Physical & Psychological Indicators:
* Eating disorders, including obesity or anorexia.
* Speech disorders (stuttering, stammering).
* Weight or height level substantially below norm.
* Age-inappropriate behaviors (bed wetting, wetting, soiling).

The main cause for the effects of social development from abuse and neglect is
mistrust.
This causes preschoolers to not develop secure relationships. If the child is abused, they cannot trust their primary care taker
Abuse effects a child's emotional development by attacking a child's self concept. The child may experience damage to self-esteem, may behave impulsively, and have frequent emotional outbursts.
Child's self esteem at this age (preschool age) is very delicate, and can easily be damaged.
According to Lori Brown, a retired Social Worker and Director of Child Abuse Center in Murfreesboro, TN, said that during the preschool age, they are developing their personalities, and abuse will alter how a child sees him or herself, therefore will create an introverted child.
One of the main affects of abuse on a child's cognitive development is lower academic achievement.

"Speech may be absent, delayed, or hard to understand. " (Effects of Abuse and Neglect on Development).
According to Wiggins, Fenichel, and Mann (2007), "In one study, abused preschoolers scored on average 20 points lower than nonabused preschoolers on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test" (Hoffman-Plotkin & Twentyman, 1984).
Jean Piaget says that children at the preschool age are in the preoperational stage of cognitive development. During this time, children reason by transduction, which is when children mentally link two events. A child may believe, "I have to be quiet, or my parents will punish me."

When neglect is happening, children's brains are not being stimulated. When this happens the saying, "If you don't use it, you lose it." Comes to play. Children can be hindered in emotional regulation or behaving inappropriately. Their abstract thinking skills may be delayed as well.
Theory:
Brown, L. (19 October 2013). Personal Interview: Phone Call.

Papalia, D. E. & Feldman, R. D. (2011). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

PBS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/parents/childdevelopmenttracker/one/socialandemotionalgrowth.html

Effects of Abuse and Neglect on Development. Retrieved from: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/ca/fosterparents/training/chidev/cd05a.htm

Kennedy, K.Y. (2003). A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice. Retrieved from: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/foundation/foundationf.cfm

Papalia, D. E. & Feldman, R. D. (2011). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

Wiggins, C., Fenichel, E., & Mann, T. (2007). Literature Review: Developmental Problems of Maltreated Children and Early Intervention Options for Maltreated Children. Retrieved from: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/children-cps/litrev/index.htm

Abused children have an unusually short attention span, a lack of interest in objects, and an inability to concentrate.

The cognitive development level of a preschooler may be at the stage of a younger child.
Albert Bandura's Social learning theory: the "theory that behaviors also learned by observing and imitating models" (Papalia & Feldman, 2011, p. 31).
With children growing up and observing caregivers, they are exposed to all kinds of things, even abuse. How the child develops physically, cognitively, emotionally, and socially is affected by the relationship that parents and caregivers have with their children and with each other. These children learn what to do by watching their caregivers.





Sources:
Papalia, D. E. & Feldman, R. D. (2011). A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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