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Transcript of Victimology Timeline
1775- William Blackstone Marital Unity Doctrine.
Reflects American Opinion on Marriage and Domestic Violence. Man is required by law to treat women as they do their children with the same type of punishment and discipline. Women becomes property of man.
1827- Bradley v. Mississippi.
Domestic Violence is condoned for the first time by a court. Men have the right to chastisement of wives and the court values the right to marital privacy.
1827- James Kent's commentaries on American law.
Men have superiority over women because of United States laws. Men have all the control over property rights as long as they are alive. Women are still viewed as more of property of husbands than individual citizens.
1828- Delaware court declares you cannot strike a pregnant women.
One of the first instances where women are protected from their husband. Court says the women and child should be protected and not put in harms way.
1832- Delaware court's finding is rebuked by New York court.
The court found that the husband had the right to chastisement. Marital issues are private and should not be interfered with. Moral corruption may be the result if men are not allowed to discipline their wives.
1864- State v. Black
Court discloses that they will not interfere with the privacy of marriage
without permanent injury or excess violence inflicted on the wife- the
curtain will remain closed. Men are still allowed to physically
punish wife as long as it is not excessive.
1871- Knight V. Knight (Iowa)
Court decides there is no divorce for cruelty by husband towards wife. They conclude that the violence inflicted on her was brought on by herself and a man's duty to resurrect the situation.
1871- Commonwealth v. McAfee (Massachusetts)
The court condemns a husbands actions of beating his wife because she was drunk. Court states that a man is not given the right through marriage to strike his wife. Important because up until this time a husband had been able to treat his wife how he thought was fit.
1871- Fulgham v. State (Alabama)
Women should not be treated as mere slaves of men. They should be receive the same rights as a man possesses. Husband does not have the right to abuse women and marriage does not give them that right.
1885- Chicago protective Agency for Women and Children
Attempted to give aid and programs for women and children who were subject to abuse by men. The first program instituted to assist women and children who were subject to abuse. There was finally help for the people affected by physical abuse.
1889-1894- 58 of 60 men arrested for Domestic violence in Charleston, Sc were black. This showed the domestic violence was not taken seriously in
the mainstream and was only enforced as a way to take advantage of
Early 1900's-Divorce Law Liberalized
Divorce was now allowed because of cruelty. Women begin to be afforded more protection and are justified in divorce filings because of mistreatment.
1910- By this year 36 of 46 states had passed the liberalized divorce laws mentioned above. Domestic relation courts were also being implemented.
1915-1920- 25 cities adopted Chicago's Protective Agency.
Many more cities were beginning to assist women and children affected by domestic violence. This helped create added awareness for the plight of victims of this type of crime.
1931- Uniform Crime Reporting began.
This is the first system in the United States for observing the amount and types of crime taking place. Gives us a glimpse at how prevalent crime is in our society. The UCR had specific definitions for crimes, which, make it difficult for the real number of crimes reported by other agencies to reflect the actual number of crimes.
1940's- Women's Bureaus disappeared.
This is the end of the social work era. Women began changing to more men domintated roles because of World War 2. Police departments shutting down women components to assist female crime victims.
1940-1950's- Rise of Psychology and Treatment.
Individuals were no longer looked at as criminals or victims. They were seen to be clients that could be corrected through therapeutic and rehabilitative means,
1948- Von Hentig's Criminal and His Victim
This research showed that victim characteristics can leave them more predisposed to crime. Raises the likelihood of a criminal act.
1956- Mendelsohn writes Six Degrees of Victim Blaming.
He declared that the victim could have as much to do with the crime as the offender. Need to identify the culpability of victim in criminal act.
1957- Margaret Fry
Proposed Victim compensation in England. England did not adopt proposal.
1958- 1960- Amir's Rape study.
Amir's study found that many rapes were precipitated by
victim. Criticized because he used "Rape Myths" to justify the victim's role in the crime.
1960's- Compensation and Restitution.
These two aspects are given more attention than in the post.
1961- Mapp v. Ohio
Case determines that evidence cannot be seized by illegitimate means. Begins the era where offenders are given more rights and appear to be being "coddled".
1963- New Zealand adopts Compensation.
1965- First Act to protect victims rights.
California becomes first state to enable victim compensation.
1965- Schaefer writes Victim and His Criminal.
illustrates victim precipitation in crime. Set forth responsibilities for different victims.
Miranda case gives criminals even more protection than before. Offenders gaining more rights than victims.
1967- President's Commission
The commission was looking for better representation of the crime problem in the United States. The called for the development of criminal victimization surveys. These eventually led to today's NCVS.
1970's- Women, Children, and Civil rights movement.
These three movements were present in the 60's but started gaining momentum in the 70's.
1972- London opens first domestic violence shelter.
The goal was to provide help and services for battered women. Erin pizzey was seen as the catalyst for these shelters.
1972- First three victim assistance programs in U.S.
Two of these were rape crisis centers. The emotional pain of crime began to be recognized. Offered assistance where victims were not treated unfairly, unlike, the criminal justice system.
1972- National Crime Surveys.
The third generation of crime victim surveys were launched this year . These types of surveys showed
that the UCR estimates for the number of crimes
were much lower than the actual number. NCVS would
be the next generation.
1973- Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
Conference decides to allocate funds for different programs within Criminal Justice system.
1974- Funding from LEAA creates the first local victim/ witness programs. Better treatment for victims during court.
1974- Federal Child Abuse & Treatment Act
Act Lays out the fundamental types of child maltreatment and calls for reporting of this behavior by people that detect this behavior.
1975- Funding also created the National Office of Victim Assistance (NOVA). NOVA attempts to help victims of crime understand their rights and offer services to aid victims of crime.
1978-First National Victim Resource Center.
Funded by LEAA block grants. Helped with crisis intervention, counseling, support during criminal justice proceedings, compensation and restitution
1978- Founded National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
Provided a advocacy network for shelters for people involved in DV.
1980's-Temporary Restraining Orders become available.
1980's- Rape Shield Laws
Prevent bringing up victim's sexual history, better protection of victim identity in court documents, some states prohibit publishing victims' names in the media.
1980- Mothers' Against Drunk Driving formed (MADD)
Another Organization formed for the rights of victims and their families so justice can be better accomplished. Prevent drunk driving.
1980- First Victims' Bill of Rights (Wisconsin)
The bill illustrates the rights victims' have regarding knowing about their court case and the services offered for them.
1980- National Campaign for Victims' Rights
1981- Reagan Declares first "crime victim rights week" in April to raise awareness.
1981-1982- Minneapolis Experiment
Study sought to find out the best remedy to stop future domestic violence.
Researchers found that arresting the perpetrator had the best results.
The study was flawed because the officers did not follow the "rules"
specified for the research to be legitimate.
1978- Founded National Coalition Against Domestic Violence.
Provided a advocacy network for shelters for people involved in DV.
1978- Steinmetz investigates prevalence of elder abuse.
1979- Crime Victims Book
Morton Bard offers advice on how to identify and
meet victims' needs.
1982- Founded National Victim & Witness Protection Act
Omnibus victim/witness protection act was matching federal act. objective was to to enhance and protect the necessary role of crime victims and witnesses in the criminal justice process and to ensure that the Federal government does all that is possible within limits of available resources to assist victims and witnesses of crime without infringing on the constitutional rights of defendants
1982- President's Task Force for Victims of Crime.
Reagan created this in order to understand the plight of crime victims. Recommendations were made to improve the experience for victims of crime. Compensation programs, additional services, and victim impact statements were among the recommendations. VOCA would eventually be the
1983- National Conference on the Judiciary & Victim Rights.
Purpose was to further educate judges on victims' rights.
1983- Office of Victims of Crime (OVC) opens in DOJ.
Implemented to try and fulfill recommendations from the president's task force. It was a national resource center, trained professionals, and develops model legislation to protect victims’ rights.
1983- USAG creates guidelines for the treatment of federal victims and witnesses.
1984- Victims of Crime Act passed (VOCA)
Established the Crime Victims Fund, made up of
federal criminal fines, penalties, and bond forfeitures,
to support state victim compensation and local victim
assistance programs. Victims of crime could now receive compensation for the act committed against them. Also, many services relating to victims' aid were improved by this Act. Social contract and social welfare are main arguments for compensation. Illustrated the guidelines for compensatable acts.
1984- USAG Task Force Report
Recommendations for better ways to deal with battered women and family violence. Try and establish prevention programs, awareness programs, and data collection.
1984- Thurman v. Torrington Police (CT)
Abuse is no longer considered a private matter.
1984- Family Violence Prevention and Services Act
Abuse and Neglect of family members are made illegal. Offers shelter to those affected by domestic violence and violence prevention programs. Money is granted for the development of these services.
1984- Older Americans Act
Implemented in order for aging American citizens to receive better care.
1987- Booth v. Maryland
Court says no to Victim Impact Statements during sentencing because it makes the sentencing subjective and focuses on the victim instead of offender.
1989- Gathers v. South Carolina
No statements about victims' character by prosecution. Statements are unconstitutional because it could prejudice the jury to hear the emotional depiction of the victim.
Finally the 90's
By 1990- 48 states had make restitution a punishment itself.
Greater ability for offenders to take accountability for their actions. Takes a restorative approach to make victim whole again.
1990's- Police Academies added Domestic Violence training
1990- Crime Control Act created the Victim Bill of Rights
Codifies the services available to victims of crimes.
1990- Clery Act
Campuses must report their crime statistics.
1991- Payne v. Tennessee
Rebuked the Booth and Gathers decisions. Victim
Impact Statements could be used and does
not violate 8th amendment.
1992- Family Violence & Prevention Services Act
Reauthorized to create protections; Mandatory reporting, Social services more involved, and call for research.
1992- Hate Crime Statistics Act
Developed to track the instances of hate crime in America.
1994- Violence Against Women Act VAWA
New requirements for criminal justice responses for these types of crimes, services available within community, public safety measures, education, health, data services, and training for CJ employees were among upgrades. Additional funding to make these possible.
1994- Model Code on Domestic and Family Violence by the national counsel of Juvenile & Family Court Justices.
Dealt with the problems associated with child Custody
1994- Child Abuse Registry Launched
Hospitals can report suspicious wounds among other
1990' s Cont.
1996- Implementation of the National Domestic Violence Hotline.
1996- Community Notification Act (Megan's Law)
Communities are afforded the right to know if a child sex offender moves into their neighborhood.
1997- Victims' Rights Clarification Act
Allows victims to attend trials and act as impact witnesses during the sentencing phase in both capital and non-capital cases.
1997-Kansas v. Hendricks
Detaining an individual deemed a threat to commit more sexual crimes is not unconstitutional. The purpose is not to detain but for the rehabilitation of individual.
1998- Crime Victims with Disabilities Act
First effort to systematically gather information about the extent of victimization of individuals with disabilities. This legislation directs the U.S. Attorney General to conduct a study on crimes against individuals with developmental
2000- VAWA II
3.3 Billion more dollars allocated for five more years. Required cross-jurisdictional honor of TRO. Continued funding of existing programs. Expanded original STOP programs.
2000- Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act
Increase protection of victims and reporting of such activity. Produce reports of the amount of victims. Uniform nationally.
2001- Special Federal Victim Compensation
Directly correlated with 9/11 attacks. Produced to provide assistance to families who lost loved ones.
By 2002- 2/3 of States have Constitutional Right to Victim Compensation.
2003-Amber Alert went national
2003-National office on Violence Against Women (DOJ)
2004- January became Stalking Awareness Month
2003- Smith et al. v. Doe et al.
Petitioner did not want the photos and information to be public record for sex offenses. Supreme Court said it did not violate ex post facto laws and was constitutional for it to be public record.
2004- January became Stalking Awareness Month
2005- National Online Sex Offender Registry is Commissioned
Shows real time information of sex offenders on the internet with a single search.
2005- Combating Trafficking
2006- Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act
Information is more developed on sex offenders. Whereabouts are tracked the more dangerous they are deemed.
2007- Crime Victims' Rights Rules Act
Guaranteed Victims rights and guidance in Federal Court
2008- Trafficking Victim Protection Act Reauthorized
The act went worldwide
2010- National Survey of White Collar Crime
Showed that 24% of households and 17% of individuals had been affected by this crime in the past year.
2013- VAWA Reauthorized
Devoted education for teen violence and internet stalking. Barriers removed from LGBT definitions.
2014- OVC disburses 8.3 million for victims of the Boston Marathon bombing.
2014- Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision (ICAOS)
Promoted cooperation and coordination among the states in the transfer of supervised offenders across state boundaries.
2014- Sexual Assault Kit Backlog Reduction Law
6 states and federal government have passed this.
Backlogged kits need to be tested and not just wasted.