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PLT chapter 5
Transcript of PLT chapter 5
Ways to differentiate in the classroom:
Include different learning styles and multiple intelligences in a lesson
Content to meet the capabilities, experiences, and interests of students
Group students with similar needs or interests
Gardner states that humans have at lest eight distinct areas of intelligence.
Spatial, bodily – kinesthetic, musical, linguistic, logical – mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory asserts that each person has eight intelligences, but the strength varies between individuals.
Federal legislation consists mainly of grants for the education of students who are gifted and talented.
Each state creates their own legislation regarding the education of students who are gifted and talented.
Educators in most states must have an endorsement to teach students who are gifted and talented.
Gifted and Talented
Cognitive ability refers to the intellectual ability of students.
Some people have concerns about the validity of IQ tests, so no decision is made solely on the basis of IQ.
IQ scores between
0-70 – below average ability
70-130 – average intelligence
130 and up – above average
Use visuals and reminders such as concept maps
More hands-on activities
Use body language as opposed to verbal instructions and model social skills
Structure lessons clearly and allow breaks
Clearly announce upcoming transitions
Be aware of distracting noise and clutter
Ignore the small stuff that can’t be changed, and focus on teaching and learning
Techniques for Teaching Children with Autism
Developmental disorder that affects how people relate to others and perceive the world around them.
Abnormal social interactions
Moderate to severe behavior problems such as irritability and aggressiveness
Restricted and repetitive behaviors
Rising incidence of Autism spectrum disorders
Disorder that can affect student academic performance
Inability to maintain attention or plan ahead
Impulsive and easily distracted
Increase in rate of diagnosis (5.5% increase between 2003 and 2007)
Teacher may be the first person to suspect a student has ADD/ADHD
Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
One example of a learning disability.
Students often sequence letters incorrectly in words while they are reading or writing and interchange words and numerals.
Response to Intervention: method used for early diagnosis of a learning disability
Deliberate strategies to impact learning
Progress is measured frequently
Referral for special services when needed
Provides parents or guardians with:
The right to examine all of their student’s school records.
Notice before any change in placement or classification is made
Consent before their child is evaluated or placed.
IDEA and Due Process
Regular classroom some of the time and special classroom (usually taught by special education teachers) some of the time.
Resource classroom full time, with no time spent in traditional classrooms.
Special schools with no attendance in a traditional school or classroom.
Homebound, hospital, or residential facility.
Methods of Inclusions
A full and appropriate education
Education in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
An Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Six Basic Provisions of IDEA
Exceptional Students – those who differ from societal norms to the extent that they require some academic modification.
Special education-specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of exceptional students
Before the mid 20th century, students with special needs were not served by the public school system.
Landmark legislation has provided for the educational needs of students with special needs over the last 50 years.
The Student and the Teacher: Acknowledging Unique Abilities
People must construct their own understandings and their own knowledge.
Students are encouraged to relate new information to previous information in order to construct a new understanding combining both previous knowledge with new information.
Collaborative teaching, cooperative teaching, or team teaching- a general education teacher and another certified teacher work together to plan, implement, and evaluate lessons that acknowledge student unique abilities and perspectives.
Learning Modalities – the fundamental way that people take in and process information.
There are three major learning modalities (or styles)
Students who are gifted and talented – students who have potentially outstanding abilities that allow them to excel in one or more areas.
Levels of classification:
130 – 144 - Gifted
145-159 – Highly Gifted
160 and above – Profoundly Gifted
Gifted and Talented
Teachers need to provide learning environments that meet the needs of students with disabilities.
Some suggestions for teaching:
Introductory and summary activities should be provided
Be specific about what students are to achieve
Modify classroom and materials as needed
Assess student progress and achievement frequently
Teaching Students with Disabilities
Clear and simple instructions and expectations
Technology to provide audiovisual information
Use prompts and cues
Provide additional directions individually
Divide information into smaller chunks and highlight key points
Extra time for tests
Check student work for completion and accuracy
Techniques for Teaching Students with ADHD
A disorder in one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding or in using language (spoken or written) which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or perform mathematical calculations.
Students qualify for special education services.
Most learning disabled students are above average intelligence.
Learning Disabilities (LD)
One of the major provisions of IDEA
Detailed plan for a student’s education that will meet the student’s unique educational needs.
Prepared jointly by the special education teacher, classroom teachers, student’s parents or guardians, someone who can interpret the results of the assessment tests (guidance counselor or school psychologist).
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Regular classroom with no special assistance.
Regular classroom with some special teaching assistance but no special materials or procedures.
Regular classroom with assistance from special education teachers or other specialized teachers.
Methods of Inclusions
Mainstreaming – providing students with the opportunity to participate in general education classrooms.
Inclusion – including students with special needs in the regular education classroom by making needed accommodations. (current term)
Mainstreaming and Inclusion
IDEA provides for all students with disabilities to receive a “full and appropriate education.”
Provides for differing levels of and types of disabilities including cognitive and physical.
Provides for six basic provisions to protect and provide for students with disabilities.
Education of All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142)– required each state to implement policies to provide for a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) for handicapped students.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)– amended the EAHC Act in 1990, amended again in 1997, and reauthorized in 2004.
"Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an artist once he grows up."
- Pablo Picasso