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AP World - Period 4 - Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals

Fiorill - AP World - Period 4 - Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals
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Mark Fiorill

on 7 September 2017

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Transcript of AP World - Period 4 - Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals

Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals

1450 - 1750
Gunpowder Empires - guns to control, build, maintain
vizier - head of imperial admin
Ottomans
no military change
devshirme to janissary, bureaucracy
devshirme - Christian boys as slaves
Janissaries - elite military group; replaced tribal warriors
Sultan - military, political leader
Political
expand post Mongol
semi-nomadic Turks
Osman - founder
new cultural/tech changes?
inclusion of Jews, Christians
Sunni Muslims
Cultural
control land, Black & Med seas trade
Economic
Shahs = "king of kings"
spread Islam to Africa, India
disregard wealth, pleasure, power
Sufiism - aspect or dimension of Islam
Political/Religious
military tech from Europe
Slave soldiers counterbalance tribal soldiers
1514 - Chaldiran (NW Persia)
conflict with Ottomans
1500s, Ismail
Shi'ite Muslims
Turkish nomadic group
Safavids
Islamic infighting
outside attacks
collapsed in 1720s
Decline
silk major good
shahs promoted trade
Economic/Social
1450 - Delhi Sultanate controlled much of Indian subcontinent
conflict arises
Muslims see Hindus as polluting Islam
Hindus see Islam as upstart
Hinduism = Muslims say no
Islam = monotheism
Hinduism = hierarchical system
Islam = equality
Contrasting belief systems
lower castes welcome
form the Delhi Sultanate
Muslims conquer Hindu kingdoms
Mughal Empire
Akbar - led empire to its height
Babur - "Most of the people of India are infidels, called Hindus, believing in the transmigration of souls... The people have no intelligence, no polite learning,... they have no baths and no advanced educational institutions"
last until 1700s
Mongol and Turkic peoples
founded Mughal Empire
1523 - attack led by Babur
Aurangzeb - reinstitutes restrictions on Hindus
era of peace
tax rates based on wealth
respect for cow
Political
ended ban on Hindu temples
encouraged intermarriage
Hindu rajas into high bureaucracy
Akbar reforms
sati - suicide of women by jumping onto husband's funeral pyre
Shah Jahan - Taj Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan - held lots of power
trade with Europe - especially cotton (washed easily)
cotton, indigo, silk trade
Economic/Social
Islam - monotheism, rejection of idols
Hinduism - moksha, reincarnation
combines
Sikhism - meditation to seek enlightenment
became the first guru, or religious leader
Nanuk - sought to blend Islamic and Hindu beliefs
Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Sikhism
Divine Faith - attempt by Akbar to combine
Cultural
Europeans take advantage of fragmentation
British, French, Dutch joint-stock companies
regional princes begin to war
less emphasis on military, political, economic
Decline
architecture - blend of Persian and Hindu
miniature paintings
deeppile carpets major good
and then...
sufis = commoners
Similarities
1. Nomadic Turkic background
2. Spoke Turkic languages
3. Took power after Mongols
4. Relied on artillery, cannons
5. All Islamic
Full transcript