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Direct Instruction Reaading

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on 10 September 2015

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Transcript of Direct Instruction Reaading

What must I know and be able to do to teach children to read?
Essential skills/objectives that are building blocks of the process
Monitoring/measuring progress
Effective presentation techniques (including motivating, pacing, diagnosing error, corrective measures)
Assessments for placements, grouping
Assessment data and informed decision-making
Classroom organization and maximizing instructional time
Perspectives on Reading Instruction
Direct Instruction (DI)
Scientifically-based approach to teaching reading. Solid research base with large-scale experimental studies (whole schools).

The Follow Through study:
Research with Disadvantaged Students
Guthrie (1977)- there are no final answers regarding best teaching methods, but this is evidence about the effects of these programs, at an "unprecedented level of certainty"
DISTAR (1974), renamed Reading Mastery I and Reading Mastery II (hey, we use this!)
DI gains averaged a full SD above comparison groups- a very rare effect size
No conflict of interest (publisher-researcher)
What Teachers Make
Perspectives on improvement
Pessimist- "nothing we can do unless parents/home life changes"- see Becker (1973)- we mustn't minimize the importance of teaching. Blaming children doesn't make them proficient readers.

Generalist- focus in on the process or abilities that underlie learning. Teach students to learn and to be motivated to do so, train their auditory processes, etc. This still doesn't address high-quality instruction.

Constructivist or "whole-language"- viewed as a "natural process" and assumes no struggle on the part of the child. Focus on general comprehension and not accuracy of reading.

Chapters 1-4 & Overview of 5
Direct Instruction Reading
Research on Teacher Effectiveness
Rosenshine (1986)
high engagement
academic focus
teacher directed
sequenced, structured
goal-oriented (clear)
maximizes instructional time
content coverage
performance monitoring
structured teacher-student exchange
Research with students with disabilities
Diverse students
At-risk Learners
Greater need for research-based strategies:
principles vary in application
can be customized to support individual needs
reading is the most studied- National Reading Panel (2000)
components of effective reading instruction are now (almost) universally agreed-upon
DI incorporates these skills
National Reading Panel (2000) Inclusions
Phonemic Awareness- break apart & manipulate sounds in words

Phonics-knowledge of representation of sounds with letters, blending into words

Fluency (guided oral reading)-accuracy and reading rate (wpm)

Comprehension (vocabulary, application of understandings) influenced by??

Later- writing
Research on Reading Readiness

Pessimist, generalist, constructivist, and DI all differ in their take on readiness as well.

Some believe reading instruction should be delayed to build background knowledge.

Delaying denies opportunity to catch up to more prepared peers

Child-centered approach relies on students "naturally" learning to read

DI prepares systematically and efficiently
WHAT IS Direct Instruction?
An approach to teaching that is skills-oriented, teacher-directed, and utilizes small-group ftf instruction. Units are carefully sequenced and explicitly taught. Derived from experimental studies as a teaching model AND developed into a formal set of programs, DI (Engelmann).
Return to the NRP Report (2000)
The "big five":
Phonemic awareness
Text Comprehension

Put Reading First (2001)- Partnership for Reading, National Institute for Literacy, National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD), & US DOE

www.nifl.gov is now closed- see OSEP, OVAE, OCTAE


The DI Model, explained...
Includes the NRP five components, and:
sequenced components/sub-components for skills progression (beginning to advanced)
specifies efficient/effective teaching techniques so ALL acquire the skills (beginning to advanced)

Techniques & procedures:
Ch. 3 & 4- a closer look
intensive correlation between Chall's model, DI model, and the findings of the National Reading Panel

Works of Jeanne Chall (1921-1999):
Harvard Reading Laboratory
The Academic Challenge: What Really Works in the Classroom (2000)- explicit teaching is emphasized
Chall's Model of Reading Development
Stage 0- Birth to age 6
pre-reading stage
Stage 1-Grades 1-2
letter-sound correspondence
general understanding of spelling-sound system
Stage 2-Grades 2-3
apply stages 0-1 and begin to read words, stories
1 & 2 are often the "learning to read stage", but decoding mastery begins the transition to "reading to learn"
Stage 3-Phase A- Grades 4-6; B- 7-8 or 9
New knowledge/info aquired through reading
Vocabulary growth, broad range of texts, expository, towards multiple viewpoints
Stage 4 (High School)...
Stage 5 (Adulthood and beyond...)

Clarifications to Chall
Age, grade are approximations
Development is contingent upon extent of home/school instruction
Each stage is dependent (build upon) upon success of prior stages
No clear-cut boundaries between/among stages- stages will continue and overlap (think of a word you finally learned to spell this year...)
DI & Chall's Model- congruent
Classroom Reading Instruction
Comprehensive Core- wide range of content, sometimes depth is at a disadvantage
Focused Core- essential skills, not as inclusive, must supplement with teacher-created materials for content-standard coverage, effective with at-risk
Supplementary Materials/Programs- focus on just one or two areas of instruction, effective with at-risk, extra practice, varying degrees of quality. Must be research-based and align with core.
Intervention Materials- aimed at below-grade-level performers, w/ critical content from earlier levels- highly systematic & explicit
Computer-based- variety available to supplement core and help motivate, record-keeping is a plus for teachers, can address critical areas. Limitation- not perceptive of student verbal response
School Programming, What Works, and Modifications to the Core
School reading programs are designed to meet needs of all learners. Core- majority of children. Intervention- below level, Supplementary- address particular weaknesses ( ex- ESL/ESL/ESOL)

Effectiveness vs. Inclusiveness- focus on what works as opposed to what is best for the majority or a checklist of requirements that meet general criteria.

Most core programs require mods to address needs of at-risk.
Priority of tasks,
clear directives on how to teach skills,
directives for assessments,
control of vocabulary/syntax of presentation
Assessment, Materials, & Routines
Essential part of assessment program:
Progress Monitoring

Organization of materials is critical.

Classroom routines are non-negotiable.

Instructional Delivery
Essential Ingredients:
Instructional time
Presentation techniques

Aspects of Program Design & Teaching Technique:
Objectives- specific, measurable
Strategies- not "memorizing"- if I know this, then...
Procedures-format for presentation, one skill at a time- say the name for the vowel in like, etc.
Exemplars-readiness, mix of examples for discrimination, range for differentiation of when to use strategies
Skills sequenced to mastery of objectives-pre skills, instances before exceptions, importance of high-utility skills, easy before hard, confusing strategies/information taught separately
Practice and review- develop accuracy/fluency, in-lesson practice of new skills, review across multiple lessons, critical for retention of skills

Techniques for Presentation

Small Group
homogeneous must be flexible (mobility from group-to-group)
# depends on ability and sophistication of students
vulnerable/instructionally naive

Choral or Unison Oral Response
structured to include choral response, everyone practices as often as possible
teacher has multiple opportunities to assess
interactive, short bursts
encourages attention

Cues from teacher prompt a unison or choral response
Directive, pause, cue, response
Prevents domination by higher-performers, prevents others from lagging behind

Also, pacing, monitoring, correction, and motivation...

Instructional Delivery, continued
lively, animated, without hesitation
brisk but not rushed
transitions are fluid and waste no instructional time
focus on one at a time, whole group, move from student to student equitably, individual turns where needed
Correcting/Diagnosing errors
teach to mastery (more practice)
ask series of questions to correct or give explicit examples
diagnosis is more challenging as task complexity increases
individual attention when needed
Motivating, Accelerating, and Conducting Whole-class Instruction
Some are eager, some have little interest. Demonstrate ability to succeed. Rewards- physical to "intrinsic", if there is such a thing.

Maximize progress by being attentive to assessment data. Provide practice to mastery, assess frequently.

Large-group is most prevalent when learning to read becomes reading to learn.
seating- readily monitor performance of at-risk or struggling
address significantly below in small group or intervention (avoid embarrassment or higher performers tuning out)

Chapter Five Overview
Beginning Reading: First Months
Phonics Instruction
phonics + spelling
embedded phonics

Code-emphasis vs. Meaning-Emphasis
Well-designed code emphasis
Goodman (1986)

Phonics vs. Whole Language
NRP recommends that phonics instruction be explicit & systematic. It is better than non-systematic or no phonics. Improves K-1 word recognition, spelling, RC. Most effective starting in K-1, foundational knowledge begins with letters and phonemic awareness. Using their knowledge of phonics, students can begin to write words. It benefits children learning to read who may be at-risk, and helping them learn to read puts them in better shape socioeconomically. Best delivery is small-group, tutoring, over a period of about two years for most learners.

DI, Constructivist Approaches, Explicit Phonics Instruction
Readers construct meaning from text- they don’t simply “get” the meaning from the text. Emphasis is on meanings and in a constructivist classroom, mistakes are allowed just as long as meaning is preserved. Practices in Direct Instruction, however, are consistent with NRP’s recommendation.
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