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Transcript of Nationalism
What is Nationalism?
Nationalism is generally known as an extreme loyalty to one's nation or nationality and it's interests. A nation is defined geographically and by a commonly shared language.
Cerulo, Karen A. "Nationalism." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.
"Germany." World History: The Modern Era,ABC-CILO 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013
"Italy." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CILO, 2013 Web 19 Nov 2013
"nationalism." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.
"Giuseppe Mazzini." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 26 Nov. 2013.
Nationalism in Europe
The earliest forms of Nationalism were seen in the Germanic tribes that conquered much of the the Western Roman Empire.
Another country that was able to be united through Nationalism is Italy, which impacted their influence on the world
By: Molli Weiner, Matt Leonard, Jessica Grab
First nationalist beliefs expressed; Niccolo Machiavelli publishes
earliest literature using nationalist views
American Revolution happens in 1700's; Americans feel that British Crown is oppressive and want to break free
French Revolution starts in late 1700's when the bourgeoisie(professional citizens; doctors, lawyers, priests) decide that they are the cultural center of France, ignore the monarch and other officials
French Revolution turns into a war; starts in 1792 when the rest of Europe tries to make peace with France, France sees this as a threat, starts a war between France and Europe, ends in 1799 when Napoleon I uses a coup to gain dictatorship over France, effectively ends the revolution
Known to have the most influence of the time (Political and Cultural)
Rome helped Italy to spread and sent their culture and Latin language all over
Once Rome fell Italy had to start over.
They had large city-sates (Venice, Genoa)
Dominated until the French Revolution.
Napoleon's rule fueled Nationalism. Napoleon III aided Italy in their unification
A picture of the Italian flag
Germans proud to raise their flags
Germanic Tribes were formed before the birth of Christ.
The tribe that flourished was the Franks. By the 5h century they formed an Empire.
The Holy Roman Empire eventually took control. This was not the end for these tribes.
The Reformation of the church was the key to unlocking Nationalism in Germany.
Effects of Nationalism
Ernst Mortiz Ardnt
Federations were formed to work towards unification
Germany became a country
WWI Germany lost
Hitler came to power in the 20's reviving Nationalism in Germany
Italy is inspired by Napoleon I after he unifies France and restores order; Young Italy movement begins in 1831 after the Carbonari dies out; Giuseppe Mazzini intends to unify the nation using nationalist ideals and to drive out the Austrian government, this desire for unification becomes known as Risorgimento nationalism
Young Italy dies out when most members are killed or arrested; its ideals eventually led to full Italian unification in 1861
Giuseppe Mazzini is not just the key to a revolution but the founder of what is called Young Italy
Mussolini the Italian Dictator
Ernst Moritz Arndt was once a supporter of the French Revolution; after seeing how Napoleon turned it into a way to conquer Europe he protested; wanted to make sure that Germany became unified as one country
German Confederation is created at this time; made by the Congress of Vienna to loosely unify 39 German states in replacement of the Holy Roman Empire
German Confederation and Arndt's protests initially fail; Confederation dissolves when Prussia wins the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 and Arndt finally retires from his protests; Collapse of Confederation forms the North German Confederation, which is a collection of the Northern German states; eventually forms the German Empire; finalizes German unification
Hitler and the Nazi flag
German Nazi's Proud of their country
Excerpt from an essay written by Mazzini
Nationalist views continue everywhere today; not as intense as in the past
1. What does Einstien's quote mean? Why does he can nationalism an "infantile disease"? What does this tell you about his view of nationalism?
Biography- Giuseppe Mazzini
Born on June 22nd, 1805 in Genoa Italy
Very sickly in his youth; had to be constantly watched by his mother
Mother encouraged him to believe in God and taught him about Italian culture
Went to University of Genoa at age 14 on 1827, began practicing law
Austria began dominating Italy and wiping out nationalism
Mazzini decided to join the Carbonari, secret group of Italians dedicated to keeping Italy free from the Austrians
Was discovered by the authorities, arrested in 1830
While he was imprisoned he began to dislike the Carbonari 's rules, formed ideas for a new organization to keep Italy unified
Formed Young Italy after he was exiled to Marseille in France
Basically was an association made to free the separate Italian states from foreign rule and to unify Italy as one nation
Had 60,000 followers by 1833
Started out strong but slowly began to fail
Technology worked against Mazzini, other Italians didn't see a need for his peaceful protests, railroads made it easy for the different Italian states to remain connected
Mazzini 's views of believing in God to help them began to be disregarded, people began relying on themsleves and using warfare to unify themselves
Ernst Moritz Arndt - a German philosopher who aided the unification of Germany
The Maria Laach Abbey in Germany built in the 12th century
Giuseppe Mazzini was a key to a revolution in Italy
Once Italy became a country with Napoleon's III help, they were able to flourish as a country
After WW1 the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini which in the 1920's fueled a new time of Nationalism
2. What is the political cartoon illustrating about nationalism? Is it displaying a positive or negative outlook on nationalism?
Themes of Nationalism
This shows the Gothic art of Italy
Gives people in a country a sense of pride and belonging
Provides a common ground between citizens of a country
Provides cultural heritage
Unites the citizens of a nation
Allows people to survive times of hardship
Could lead to racism and intolerance
Politicians want their nation to be successful and they have a motivation to protect and improve the country
Rivalry and tension between countries
Military conflict due to nations trying to expand
Creation of false enemies
Genocide can occur due to feelings of nationalistic superiority
Products are created by the nation and sold throughout the world
Desire to have a successful economy
3. How does this illustration compare to Mazzini's essay?
4. After analyzing both primary sources, what is your view on nationalism and why? Overall, is it a positive or negative thing?
Primary Source Document
This means was provided for you by God when He gave you a country; . . . he divided Humanity into distinct groups or nuclei upon the face of the earth, thus creating the germ of nationalities. Evil governments have disfigured the Divine design . . . by their conquests, their greed, and their jealousy even of the righteous power of others. . . .
But the Divine design will infallibly be realized; natural divisions and the spontaneous, innate tendencies of the peoples will take the place of the arbitrary divisions, sanctioned by evil governments. The map of Europe will be redrawn. The countries of the peoples, defined by the vote of free men, will arise upon the ruins of the countries of kings and privileged castes, and between these countries harmony and fraternity will exist. . . . Then may each one of you, fortified by the power and affection of many millions, all speaking the same language, gifted with the same tendencies, and educated by the same historical tradition, hope even by your own single efforts to be able to benefit all Humanity.
O, my brothers, love your Country! Our country is our Home, a house God has given us, placing therein a numerous family that loves us, and whom we love; a family with whom we sympathize more readily and whom we understand more quickly than we do others. . . . Our Country is our common workshop, whence the products of our activity are sent forth for the benefit of the whole world; wherein the tools and implements of labour we can most usefully employ are gathered together; nor may we reject them without disobeying the plan of the Almighty, and diminishing our own strength.
—Giuseppe Mazzini, An Essay On the Duties of Man, Addressed to Workingmen, 1858
1. What does Mazzini say ruined the "Divine design"? What do you think he means by this?
2. What does Mazzini compare a country to? Why does he do this?
3. What is Mazzini's view of nationalism? How does he support his opinion?