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Unit One: The Culture of Sociology

Intro to Sociology
by

Kristin Palomares

on 1 August 2013

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Transcript of Unit One: The Culture of Sociology

Intro To Sociology
What is sociology?
How is sociology related to other fields?
Who are the famous sociologists?
How are statistics used?
What are the sociological theories?
Taboo Review
The systematic study of social behavior and human groups
French philosopher
Founder of sociology
Coined the term "sociology"
Tried to find solutions to the chaos caused by the French Revolution
Influenced by the scientific method
Believed that sociologists should concern themselves with the problems of order and change
Never completed college
Suffered from depression
Auguste Comte
The Role of Influence In Our Lives
How are individuals treated according to...
Age
Sex
Race
Religion
Education
Economic Background
What is the common thread?
Psychology
Geography
Political Science
Anthropology
Economics
Explains the process by which goods & services are produced, distributed, & consumed
The comparative study of various aspects of past & present cultures. It is closest to sociology in subject matter.
Study of past events for the purpose of exploring current social behaviors
The study of organizations & operations of government
Studies the relationship that the human race has with its environment
Focuses on individual behavior rather than on group behavior. Deals with subjects such as personality, perception, motivation, & learning.
Taboo Review
Anthropology
Economics
Political Science
History
Geography
Psychology
Sociology
Anthropology
Economics
Political Science
History
Geography
Psychology
Sociology
Born in Germany to middle-class parents
Received doctorate from the University of Berlin
Worked as a writer and editor for a racial newspaper
Believed that overall structure of a society is influenced by how the economy is organized
Thought that people who own the means of production control society
Stated that imbalance of power leads to conflict between owners and laborers
Was deeply troubled by social conditions produced by capitalist system
Believed that the task of social scientist was to transform society
Emphasized that conflict is the primary cause of social change
Karl Marx
French
Taught philosophy
Taught first social science course in France
Systematically applied methods of science to the study of society
Developed the idea of a function-positive consequence that an element of society has for the maintenance of a social system
Study only aspects of society that are directly observable
First sociologist to test theories through statistical analysis
Emile Durkheim
English
Worked as a civil engineer for a railway
Received large inheritance in his thirties
Was influenced by views of Charles Darwin
Viewed society as a system of interdependent parts that work together to maintain the system
Believed that social change and unrest were natural occurrences in society's evolution toward stability and perfection
Asserted that the fittest societies would survive over time
Believed in "Social Darwinism"
Herbert Spencer
German with middle-class parents
Received doctorate from University of Berlin
Founded the German Sociological Society in 1910
Was interested in groups within a society more than in society as a whole
Believed that sociologists should uncover the feelings and thoughts of the individual
Verstehen: sociologist places himself/herself in the place of others and attempts to see things through their eyes
Ideal Type: essential characteristic of some aspect of society
Max Weber
Envelope Enigma
Marx
Weber
Spencer
Durkheim
Function-Positive Consequence
Ideal Type
Verstehen
Social Darwinism
History
What is culture?
Buried Treasures
Cultural Universals
A common practice of belief found in every culture
Many of which are adaptations to meet essential human needs (i.e. food, shelter, clothing, etc.)
Popularized by George Murdock
What is culture?
The beliefs, values, behaviors, & material objects shared by a particular people
Non-Material
Material
Abstract human creations
The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society
The physical objects that people create
The tangible things created by members of a society
What changes faster?
Cultural Change
Internally Through Invention
Externally Through Borrowing
Change
Does a culture invent more than it borrows or does it borrow more than it invents?
Why are cultures so different?
Culture
Varied Geographic & Climate Conditions
Climate, topography, nearness of water, availability of natural resources
Long Periods of Isolation
Isolation doesn't encourage borrowing, so change must be internal through invention
Human Imagination & Inventiveness
Some cultures create key, basic, or primary inventions
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one's culture is superior to all others and, therefore, one is not willing to change
What are you?
Cultural patterns that differ from the dominant culture in some distinctive way
Age
Sex
Ethnic Group
Occupation
Social Class
Lifestyle
What are the top ten foreign languages spoken in the U.S.?
What is the foreign language spoken most in the U.S.?
Can you name any foreign languages that show a decline in their usage?
Can you name any foreign languages that show the greatest amount of increase in their usage?
Is the U.S. a melting pot or a salad bowl?
What are values?
Criteria people use in assessing their daily lives, arranging their priorities, measuring their pleasures & pain, & choosing between alternative courses of action
What is"good" for society & are necessary for group living
Top ten values?
Norm Pictionary
Debate
In reality, the only rule a society needs is the Golden Rule: "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you"
Ethnocentrism
Cultural-Relativism
The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
The practice of one culture judging another culture using that culture's standards
Are people getting dumber?
5 min
Quiz Time
What is the capital of California?
How many stripes are on the American flag?
How many inches are in a foot?
What is the largest state in America?
Write/recite the U.S. pledge of allegiance.
Sacramento
13
12
Alaska
I pledge Allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for all.
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