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Transcript of Westward Expansion
-Mulitple Choice Test
-5 Paragraph Essay "Was Westward Expansion a genocide?" Westward Expansion Great Plains Indians Was Westward Expansion a genocide? Many Native Americans lived on the Great Plains for hundreds of years. A number of them, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, had lived on the Plains for hundreds of years. Why did Americans Want to Move West? The "Indian Problem" Brainstorm: How could the US get rid of the Native Indians that were on the lands they wanted? Forced Removal West Buffalo Let's Take a Closer Look ￼￼￼ The Indians moved very often, following the Buffalo that roamed the plains. The buffalo served as a living grocery store for the Plains Indians.After acquiring horses, they followed huge herds of buffalo and hunted them by driving them into large corrals, or enclosures. They sent out hunting parties that pursued Buffalo and other animals. The Indians lived in tepees made from wooden sticks and Buffalo skins. The Plains Indians were dependent on the Buffalo for food, clothing, and shelter.Buffalo meat, rich in protein was the main item in the Indians diet. They usually dried the meat on racks. They dried meat called jerky. The Roles of Women and Men Plains Indian women tanned Buffalo hides to make leather. Women were skilled in many crafts. They made baskets and blankets. They made clothing, tepees and tools. They made everything but weapons. The woman’s artistic ability established their rank in society. They took care of the children. Women tanned Buffalo hides to make leather. Women were skilled in many crafts. Plains Indian men protected the women, children and elders. They passed their valuable skills to the boys. They supervised the spiritual life of the community by leading religious ceremonies. They provided military leadership and waged war to fight or extend a territory. The most successful warriors gained great respect from the members of their nation. GOLD LAND MONEY In 1859, two young prospectors struck gold in the Sierra Nevada lands. Henry Comstock discovered a vein of gold called a lode.The Comstock Lode attracted thousands of prospectors. Miners came across the United States, as well as from France, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, and China. One of every three miners was Chinese. With the boom in mining tent cities formed, but they later became towns and cities. The cities of Denver and Colorado Springs grew very quickly as a result other miner’s discovery of gold.Thousands of people came West to supply the minors with materials such as tools, food, and clothing.People opened restaurants, boarding houses, laundries, etc. GROWTH OF ECONOMY ￼
￼￼ Gold Strike Miners arrive and build a tent city Merchants arrive to supply miners Town is built BOOMTOWN Gold Production Falls Miners move on Stores Close and Merchants leave Town is abandoned GHOST TOWN Americans believed it was their Manifest Destiny to move west.
They also understood that their was a lot of land out west that was unclaimed. It was part of their belief in the "American Dream" that they could start over, move west, acquire land, farm, and make money. “Free Land”The Homestead Act (1862)• 160 acres of public domain free to any settler who lived on the land and improved it for at least 5 years• settler could purchase the land for $1.25 per acre after 6 months’ residence• 605 million acres available• land given to male heads of households and single or widowed women The government wanted to encourage farmers to settle in the West. They also wanted to give poor people in the East a chance to own their own farm. Many Easterners rushed to accept this offer for free land. These people who accepted the offer of land were called homesteaders.By 1900, half a million farmers have settled on the Great Plains under the Homestead Act. Cost of “Free” Land for Settlers• Only 10% of western settlers (400,000 families) received their land under the Homestead Act• State governments and land companies usually held most valuable land Free land for Railroads1862-1872, Congress awarded 100 million acres of public lands to railroad companiesin 1880s, 40,000 miles of track laid west of Mississippi Through gold, farming, cattle, buying and selling of land, and the railroad business; Americans could make a lot of money by moving west. Questions: 1. Why were the buffalo so important to the American Indians?
2. What is a genocide?
3. Make a t-chart to compare the roles of men and women in Indian culture. The Life of a Mining Town Question: Name one benefit and one drawback of living in a mining town. Question: What is the "American Dream"? In your own words. Question: Would you have moved west if you heard about the Homestead Act? Why or why not? Question: 1. What role do you think railroads played in people moving west?
2. Why were railroads so important? Do Now 10/29/12
1. What do you know about genocide? What is it?
2. What do you need to know to be able to answer this essay question? American Indian Culture Frontier Life Oregon Trail The Oregon Trail was a trail that settlers used that followed rivers out to Oregon.
Fur traders and farmers particularly wanted to settle there.
It also attracted missionaries who saw it as an opportunity to convert Indians to Christianity. The Oregon Trail was an extremely difficult journey. Most travelers pooled their resources and traveled in large groups. This way they were better able to handle deep mud, broken equipment, death of animals, flooded rivers, and lack of food and water.
Wagon trains traveled slowly and the weather was unpredictable. Many travelers died on the journey. Many farmers made their homes from soil because wood was rarely found on the plains. They called these homes sod homes. Life in these homes was not ideal. Often there were few windows, it was wet, and there was an abundance of insects and rodents. Farm Life on the Plains Winter on the plains brought blizzards and freezing cold. In the summer, the droughts could be so bad that the earth would dry up and crack up to 2 feet deep.
Farmers also had to deal with insects that feasted on their crops. In the 1870s grasshoppers devoured thousands of farms. Farming demanded hard work from everyone in the family. Men did most of the heavy labor such as building fences and houses and farming. Women had to care for the household, children, garden, preserving fruits and vegetables, and cared for farm animals. Children also had to work on the farm- farming, fetching water, and making butter. Question: 1. What hardships did settlers face in the West?
2. Why do you think they would choose to stay? What does this quote tell you
about their lives?
"My first home in Montana was a dirt-roofed cabin, hardly any taller than a man, with one door and only one window. An immense pair of elk antlers hung over the door, one prong supporting a human skull which was perforated with bullet holes....
the dirt floor was covered with a clean new wagon sheet of canvas and several buffalo and mountain lion skins. . . . the bedroom was also the living room, the bed did double duty as a couch." -Nannie Alderson What does this quote tell you about their lives?
"After the winter began ... her steps were getting heavier. One day in December, the snow began to fall. Late in the afternoon I saw Antonia driving her cattle homeward across the hill. The snow was flying around her and she bent to face it, looking more lonesome-like to me than usual. ... That very night it happened. She got her cattle home, turned them into the corral, and went into the house, into her room behind the kitchen, and shut the door. There, without calling to anybody, without a groan, she lay down on her bed and bore her child." (MA, p. 316) Now, we will consider the ways that the United States dealt with this "Indian Problem". Keep in mind your essay question- was this a genocide? How to Deal with the Native Indians Forced Removal West Annihilation of the Buffalo Assimilation Reservation System War in the West Assimilation Reservation System Do Now:
Do cultural misunderstandings and differences lead to violence? Do Now Genocide: The systematic and purposeful extinction of a people or culture. What do the words systematic and purposeful mean in this definition? You're going to H.A.C.C. your notes...
H = highlight/underline, A - ask questions, C = comment, C = circle unknown words Law passed by Congress in 1830
Meant to clear 100,000 remaining Native Americans from land east of the Mississippi Rv. Indian Removal Act Many in the Southeast were part of the ‘Five Civilized Tribes” – especially the Cherokee Act required tribes to move to “Indian Territory” west of the Mississippi River
Provided money and assistance to tribes that moved willingly – about 90,000 treaties signed Chief Justice John Marshall Teamed up with an American missionary named Samuel Austin Worcester
Sued the state of Georgia for violating past treaties with the Cherokee Nation
In Worcester V. Georgia, Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee – said they should get to keep their land! Cherokees Fight Back! “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.” –Andrew Jackson President Jackson refused to enforce the Supreme Court ruling
Small group of Cherokees signed a new treaty and moved west
Most stayed put Summer 1838: 16,000 Cherokee rounded up by U.S. soldiers into stocks
Made 800-mile journey during fall and winter mostly by foot Trail of Tears Walked in cold,
rain, and snow
Robbed by government officials and outlaws along the way
1/4 died before reaching Indian Territory from exposure, hunger, and disease *Take T-chart notes as you watch the video to help you remember who is who:
Major Ridge John Ross Who do you think was the better leader of the Cherokee people? By 1852: 250,000 in California
1. From eastern U.S., China, Europe, Chile, Peru, and Mexico
2. 90% men II. Life During the Gold Rush
A. Miners used pans and sluices to search for gold. Question Would you have taken the treaty and moved your tribe west? Why or why not? Sand Creek Violent confrontations between Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians and the US government militia. Chief Black Kettle wanted to make peace and raised the American flag as a sign of surrender. US Army colonel John M Chivington and his men opened fire on the Indian camp. 200 people, mostly women and children, were killed in what is known as the Sand Creek Massacre. "It is right and honorable to use any means under God's heaven to kill Indians" Geronimo Mid 1870s- government forced the Apache Indians to re-locate to Arizona. Apache leader Geronimo fled with about 120 followers. They began to raid White Americans across the Plains. By 1886 he was outnumbered and surrendered. His surrender marked the end of armed resistance by the Indians. There were many other incidents just like this one. The End of the Buffalo 1. Kill the buffalo= kill Indians and Indian culture
2. Hunters killed buffalo to make room for railroad tracks.
3. Hide makes warm blankets
4. Buffalo hunting became a popular sport. With 2-3 million buffalo hides taken every year, the number of buffalo on the plains dropped from 13 million in 1862 to a few hundred in the 1900s. THE ANNIHILATION OF THE BUFFALO BUFFALO POPULATION WENT FROM 30 MILLION IN 1800 TO LESS THEN 100,000 IN 1889
HUNTERS COULD COLLECT $1-3 PER
GREATLY DISTURBED THE INDIANS WAY OF LIFE
FORCED NATIVE AMERICANS TO CHANGE THEIR LIFE STYLE THE ANIALIATION OF THE BUFFALO To absorb or conform to the customs, attitudes, etc., of a group, nation, or culture ASSIMILATE
TYPES OF SCHOOLS
The goal of Indian education from the 1880s through the 1920s was to assimilate Indian people into America by placing them in institutions (schools) where their traditional ways could be replaced by the dominate white society.
Goal of schools:
Strip you of your roots & culture
Teach you to appreciate white norms and dislike your own culture ASSIMILATION Federal Indian policy called for the removal of children from their families and in many cases enrollment in a government run boarding school.
Mandatory (forced) education for Indian children became law in 1893.
If parents refused to send their children to school the authorities could withhold annuities or rations or send them to jail.
Once their children were enrolled in a distant school, parents lost control over decisions that affected them.
For example, requests for holiday leave could be denied by the superintendent for almost any reason.
Students were forced to change their hair, clothing, and language. Federal Policy Toward Native Americans
(LEARN WHITE CULTURAL NORMS)
LEARN WHITE RELIGION : CHRISTIANITY)
PROCESS DESTROYED CULTURAL TRADITIONS AND COMPLETELY CHANGED THEIR WAY OF LIFE EFFECT OF SCHOOLS Why did the US government want to take this policy?
-The Indians had been moved out west. As settlers continued to populate the west, they needed to do something with the Native Americans they had moved out there.
-Assimilation meant the US decided to recognize them as people, but not as Indian people. They needed to become white.
1. What effect do you think assimilation had on the young generation’s understanding of their cultural values and tradition?
2. What impact do you think their lack of understanding had on the continuation of their cultural heritage? Do Now: What do you see in this picture?
What does it tell you about assimilation?