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History of Photography

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Elizabeth Karp

on 26 August 2011

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Transcript of History of Photography

History of Photography
1. Camera Obscura
2. Heinrich Schulze
3. Thomas Wedgewood
5. Joseph Niepce
6. Louise Daguerre
7. William Henry Fox Talbot
8. Samual F. B. Morse
9. Frederick Scott Archer
10. Matthew Brady
Timothy O'Sullivan
Andrew J. Russel
11. Eadweard Muybridge
12. George Eastman
14. Panchromatic Film
15. Kodachrome
4. Sir John Herschel
5th Century bce China: written that upside down image formed opposite a pinhole in the wall
4th Century bce Aristotle wrote about pinhole images
1500's used by many artists
Vermeer
da Vinci
Michelangelo
In 1727 a German professor, Johann Heinrich Schulze, observed that silver salts darkened when exposed to light
In 1800 Thomas Wedgewood, made "sun pictures" by placing leaves on leather treated with silver salts, but images faded into blackness.
16. Digital Photography
13. Alfred Stieglitz
He discovered sodium thiosulfate to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery that this "hyposulphite of soda" ("hypo") could be used as a photographic fixer, to "fix" pictures and make them permanent, after experimentally applying it thus in early 1839. Also invented Cyanotypes
"View from the Window at Le Gras, France"The birth of photography happened in 1826 when a French scientist, Joseph Nicephore Niepce, put a plate coated with bitumen (an asphalt used in ancient times as a cement or mortar) in a camera obscura.  He put the camera obscura  facing his house for eight hours and made  a photograph. It is the earliest camera photograph that we still have today.
Niepce (left) began sharing his findings with Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre (right), an artist who owned a theatre in Paris. They became partners three years later. Daguerre's most important discovery came in 1835, two years after Niepce died. 
1837: Daguerre found that the chemical compound silver iodide was much more sensitive to light than Niepce's bitumen. He put a copper plate coated with silver iodide in a camera obscura, exposed this plate to light for a short time, then to fumes of mercury and an image appeared! One problem remained, the image darkened over time. Two years later he solved this problem by washing away remaining silver iodide with a solution of warm water and table salt.
1841: William Henry Fox Talbot, read about the daguerreotype and realized that this invention was a lot like his own unpublicized process that he called photogenic drawing. He quickly tried to claim priority over Daguerre and presented his process in a paper to the Royal Society in London, England.   
Calotype:
coated a sheet of drawing paper with the chemical compound silver chloride, then he put it in a camera obscura where it produced an image with the tones reversed (a negative). He then placed the negative against another coated sheet of paper to produce a positive image. Talbot did not find a way to make the image permanent until a month after Daguerre's announcement, but his process, later improved and renamed the calotype, is the basis for most modern film technology which relies on negatives to produce many positive prints.
1840's: Photography arrived in America because the man who invented the telepgraph system, Samual F. B. Morse, was so excited about it. He saw a demonstration of the daguerreotype in Paris and returned to America and spread the news. Daguerreotypes remained popular in America into the 1850's, long after European photographers had switched to the improved process developed from Talbot's positive/negative method.
Portraits of people were the most popular type of photographs taken in the 1800's. Photographic portraits were much less expensive than painted ones, they took less time and were more accurate. People who painted people’s portraits quickly went out of business or became daguerreotypists themselves.
In 1851 English photographer Frederick Scott Archer invented a wet-plate process called collodion. This was like Talbot's process but the negatives were made of smooth glass instead of paper. This produced sharper images and lasted longer than paper so it was easier to produce many paper prints from one glass negative
A less expensive process was the tintype which used an iron plate instead of a glass plate. During the Civil War tintypes were the type of photography that was used the most. Tintype photographers often worked from the back of horse-drawn wagons photographing pioneer families and Union soldiers.
1861 - 1865: The Civil War in America was the first war to be thoroughly recorded by photography. American photographer Mathew Brady saw the importance of documenting the conflict at its beginning and organized a team of photographers to cover different battlefronts. They took 7,000 pictures!
Although Muybridge initially considered the task impossible, he made history when he arranged 12 cameras alongside a race track. Each was fitted with a shutter working at a speed he claimed to be "less than the two-thousandth part of a second." Strings attached to electric switches were stretched across the track; the horse, rushing past, breasted the strings and broke them, one after the other; the shutters were released by an electromagnetic control, and a series of negatives made.
Though the photographs were hardly more than silhouettes, they clearly showed that the feet of the horse were all off the ground at one phase of the gallop. Moreover, to the surprise of the world, the feet were bunched together under the belly. None of the horses photographed showed the "hobbyhorse attitude" - front legs stretched forward and hind legs backward -so traditional in painting. The photos were widely published in America and Europe.  
The Scientific American printed eighteen drawings from Muybridge's photographs on the first page of its October 19, 1878 issue. Readers were invited to paste the pictures on strips and to view them in the popular toy known as the zoetrope, a precursor of motion pictures. It was an open drum with slits in its side, mounted horizontally on a spindle so it could be twirled. Drawings showing successive phases of action placed inside the drum and viewed through the slits were seen one after the other, so quickly that the images merged in the mind to produce the illusion of motion.
In 1888 he introduced the first Kodak camera that cost $25.00 (a great deal of money then). It had a 20 foot roll of paper, (enough for 100 pictures) already put in it. To get the film developed you had to return the camera to the Eastman Dry Plate Company in Rochester, New York. For $10.00 they would develop the photographs, put more film in your camera and mail everything back to you. One year later an improved Kodak camera with a roll of film instead of a 20 foot roll of paper appeared.
Early 1900's: Alfred Stieglitz was an American photographer and modern art promoter who was instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an accepted art form. In addition to his photography, Stieglitz is known for the New York art galleries that he ran in the early part of the 20th century, where he introduced many avant-garde European artists to the U.S. He was married to painter Georgia O'Keeffe.
People had tried to make color photographs since 1860. It wasn't until 1906 that a film sensitive to all colors called "panchromatic film" was produced. You had to take three separate negatives and then use a special viewer so you could see all three slides layed on top of each other. The first color plates were invented in 1907 by Auguste and Louis Lumiere. They named it Autochrome. The colors appeared in delicate pastel.
first color film that had more than one layer of film - it had many layers of film. Now you didn't need to take three separate photographs and put them on top of each other to get one color photograph, you could just take one photograph! Kodachrome was developed in 1936.
1981: The first commercial electronic camera. It was not a digital camera, as its CCD sensor produced a video signal in the NTSC format at a resolution of 570 × 490 pixels. Mavipak 2.0" diskettes (later adopted industry-wide as the Video Floppy and labelled "VF") were used to write 50 still frames. The pictures were viewed on a television screen. Otherwise, this camera is positioned as the "pioneer of the digital era".
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