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Birth Control

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Kelly Gainor

on 1 October 2012

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Transcript of Birth Control

To prevent pregnancy or
control the timing of pregnancy Birth Control A behavior that prevents pregnancy
Can also prevent STI's Abstinence PROS Safe
No side effects CONS Requires long-term commitment
Failure Rates vary Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 100%
Actual use = Unknown, varies widely Behavioral Methods Outercourse Sex play that keeps sperm out of the vagina to prevent pregnancy PROS Safe
Inexpensive CONS Must avoid anal, oral, and vaginal intercourse
If any semen is spilled near the vulva pregnancy may still result.
Does not protect against ALL STIs Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 100%
Actual use = Unknown Withdrawal Also called the pull-out method.
Involves removing the penis before ejaculation during vaginal intercourse to prevent pregnancy. PROS Safe
High failure rates Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 94%
Typical use = 73% Fertility Awareness Methods Involves tracking fertility via temperature, cervical mucous or other methods.
Couple must abstain from vaginal intercourse on "fertile" days (usually about 7 days per cycle). PROS Safe
Low-cost CONS Disruptive to schedule
Can't use if cycles are irregular
Partner must be willing to abstain on fertile days
Medications and other factors can influence cycles
DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST STIs or HIV. Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 95-99%
Typical use = 75-88% Barrier Methods Condoms Male Condom
Worn on the penis
Made of latex or plastic
Prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection
Can be used for vaginal, anal, or oral sex
Cost about $1 each, but are sometimes available for free Female Condom
A pouch inserted into the vagina to prevent pregnancy
Reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infection
Can be used for vaginal and anal intercourse
Cost about $3 each PROS Inexpensive (sometimes free)
Easy to get
Highly effective
Protects against pregnancy AND STIs/HIV. CONS People with latex allergies should use female condoms or polyurethane condoms.
Some experience decreased sensation.
Have to "stop" to put them on. Effectiveness Rates Male Condom
Perfect Use = 98%
Typical Use = 85% Female Condom
Perfect Use = 95%
Typical Use = 79% Spermicide A substance that prevents pregnancy by killing sperm
Costs about $8 per package PROS Easy to use
May increase risk of STIs
Can cause yeast infections Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 85%
Typical use = 71% Today Sponge A foam sponge inserted into the vagina to prevent pregnancy
Costs $9-15 for three sponges PROS Safe
Can be placed ahead of time CONS Spermicide may not be well tolerated
DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST STIs/HIV Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 91%
Typical use = 84% Diaphragm A shallow latex cup inserted into the vagina to prevent pregnancy
Lasts up to two years PROS Reusable
Can be placed ahead of time
Safe, effective and convenient CONS Must be fitted by a doctor
More expensive than other methods
Spermicide may not be well-tolerated Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 94%
Typical use = 84% Hormonal Methods Take a pill each day that prevents pregnancy
Two basic kinds estrogen/progestin and progestin only. The Pill Simple, safe and convenient
May reduce cramps/bleeding
May reduce breakouts CONS All medications can have side-effects.
Breakthrough bleeding
Breast tenderness
Risk of blood clots
DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST STIs/HIV Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 99+%
Typical use = 92% The Patch A small patch that sticks to the skin to prevent pregnancy.
Same hormones as in the pill: estrogen and progestin. PROS Can have the same benefits as the pill.
Only changed once a week, instead of once a day.
Safe, effective, convenient. CONS Same possible side effects as the pill.
May be more "visible"
Less effective in women over 198 pounds.
May cause minor skin irritation.
DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST HIV/STIs. Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 99+%
Typical use = 92% The Ring Flexible, vaginal ring, worn for three weeks to prevent pregnancy
Same hormones as pill and patch. PROS Same as pill and patch.
Only changed every three weeks, easier to remember CONS Same side effects as pill and patch.
May cause irritation of the vagina, dryness, or excess discharge.
DOES NOT PROTECT AGAINST STIs/HIV. Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 99+%
Typical use = 92% The Shot and the Implant A shot of hormones every three months that prevents pregnancy PROS Depo
Does not contain estrogen
No pill to remember
No evidence of BC
Very effective CONS Depo
All medications have potential side effects
Irregular bleeding
Weight gain
Fertility takes longer to return
NO STI/HIV PROTECTION Effectiveness Rates Depo
Perfect use = 99+%
Typical use = 97% PROS Nuva Ring Depo-Provera and Implanon or Nexplanon A matchstick sized rod, inserted under the skin that prevents pregnancy
Lasts up to three years. Implanon
Does not contain estrogen
No pill to remember
Fertility returns quickly after removal
Very effective Implanon
Similar side effects to depo
Scarring or soreness around the implant
99+% Effective A small t-shaped device inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy
Hormonal and non-hormonal versions Intrauterine Device (IUD) PROS Effective for 5-12 years
Fertility returns quickly after removal.
Hormonal IUD can have similar effects to the pill.
Non-hormonal does not have any of the side effects of hormonal BC. CONS Pain or cramping during/after insertion
Irregular bleeding for the first few months.
Paraguard (non-hormonal) can cause heavy bleeding and cramping.
NO STI/HIV PROTECTION! Effectiveness Rates Perfect use = 99+%
Actual use = 99+% Other Methods Emergency Contraception (EC) Birth control that prevents pregnancy if taken within 5 days of unprotected sex
More effective the sooner it is taken after sex (89% effective when taken within 72 hours)
For use only as back-up birth control Sterilization Vasectomy
Surgery in which the tubes that carry sperm are cut, preventing pregnancy
Meant to be permanent. Tubal Ligation
Surgery in which the fallopian tubes are cut, preventing eggs from reaching the uterus, therefore preventing pregnancy.
Meant to be permanent. Which Method is Right? Jennifer Jennifer is 15 years old and lives with her grandmother. She says she has almost no privacy. Her boyfriend goes to a different school, so they don't have sex very often. Which method should she use? Best Methods Male or female condoms, kept at his house.
The shot
IUD Worst Methods The pill, patch or ring Rita and Paul Rita and Paul are both 19. Neither wants to have a baby right now, but Rita has high blood pressure. Neither have a car and both live with their parents. Best Methods Diaphragm
IUD (non-hormonal only)
Male or female condoms
The Sponge Worst Methods The pill, patch and ring are out because of Rita's high blood pressure.
Sterlization should not be considered due to age and desire to have children in the future. Maria and Steve Maria and Steve want to use birth control but Maria has a terrible memory. Steve is also allergic to latex. Best Methods The shot
Nuva Ring
Female condoms or non-latex male condoms
The pill or patch (Steve can help!) Worst Methods The pill (if Steve has a bad memory too!
Latex condoms Denise Denise is 27 years old, divorced and the mother of twin boys in the first grade. She'd like to have another child in the future, but she wants more time to find the right partner. Best Methods IUD
Male or female condoms
Sponge Worst Methods Sterlization
The shot (fertility takes a long time to return) My Method BC is not one-size-fits-all.
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