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Transcript of ecological model
small groups Groups, Culture,
Organization Community/Policy Individual-level influences are often designed to affect an individual’s social and cognitive skills and behavior, and include approaches such as counseling, therapy, and educational training sessions Macro-level factors that influence child maltreatment such as religious or cultural belief systems, societal norms, and economic or social policies that create or sustain gaps and tensions between groups of people. Ecological models of health behavior emphasize the environmental and policy contexts of behavior, while incorporating social and psychological influences.
Ecological models lead to the explicit consideration of multiple levels of influence, thereby guiding the development for more comprehensive interventions
As the model has evolved in behavioral sciences and public health, focus on the nature of people’s transactions with their corresponding physical and sociocultural surroundings (environments). OVERVIEW -Ecological models of health behavior emphasize the environmental and policy contexts of behavior, while incorporating social and psychological influences.
-Ecological models lead to the explicit consideration of multiple levels of influence, thereby guiding the development for more comprehensive interventions
-As the model has evolved in behavioral sciences and public health, focus on the nature of people’s transactions with their corresponding physical and sociocultural surroundings (environments). OVERVIEW 1. Multiple levels of factors influence health behaviors
Specify that at multiple levels, often including interpersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy, can influence health behaviors.
Concepts at these levels include sociocultural factors and physical environments and may apply to more than one level.
Inclusion of all levels of influence distinguish ecological models from theories that primarily focus on one or 2 of the levels. Core Principals: 2. Influences interact across levels
The interaction of influences mean the variables work together.
May be difficult to discern which of the possible interactions is most important because there are likely to be multiple variables at each level.
Challenge for research is to expand understanding these interactions. Core principals Continued: 3. Multi-level Interventions should be most effective in changing behavior.
Implications of this model is that single-level interventions are unlikely to be effective population-wide.
Educational interventions designed to change beliefs and behavioral skills are likely to be more effective when policies and environments support the changes Core Principals continued: 4. Ecological models are most powerful when they are behavior-specific, identifying the most relevant potential influences at each level.
These models appear most useful to guide research and intervention when they are tailored to specific health behaviors. Often environmental and behavioral policies are behavior specific.
The need to identify environmental and policy variables that are specific to behavior is a challenge in the use of ecological models because lessons learned with one behavior may not translate to an apparently similar behavior. Core principal Continued Public Health Approach to
Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect Core principles continued: collaborations of multiple partners to change laws and policies related to child maltreatment. Another intervention would be to determine societal norms that accept violence and identify strategies for changing those norms Intervention Factors that increase risk as a result of relations with peers, intimate partners, and family members. A person’s closest social circle – peers, partners and family members – have the potential to shape an individual’s behavior and range of experience.
Interventions for interpersonal relationship level influences could include family therapy, bystander intervention skill development, and parenting training . Factors that increase risk based on community and social environments in which an individual has experiences and relationships such as schools, workplaces, and neighborhoods. For example, lack of enforcement of child maltreatment laws in a community can send a message that child maltreatment is tolerated, and there may be little or no consequences for those who perpetrate violence against children.
Intervention typically designed to impact the climate, systems and policies in a given setting. Core Principles continued The Reframing of Health Behavior as the result of influences across diverse ecological layers rather than the responsibility of individuals raises interesting issues about the role of individual responsibility for change.