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Chapter 23 Congress Of Vienna
Transcript of Chapter 23 Congress Of Vienna
In 1848 peace in Europe desperately needed to be restored. The quadruple alliance including Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain decided to cooperate with France. This meeting aimed towards restoring the balance of power after Napoleon I fell from his position as French Emperor.
French Socialists thought the economy should be reorganized, not relying on destructive competition
Socialists believed the rich & poor should be nearly equal economically
State regulation of property began to take place
Socialist Economies revolved around Public Ownership, and independent cooperatives
A Socialist Economy is a system of production where goods and services are used for direct use
Through the Congress a new map of Europe was created- Not caring about ethnic pride or the languages spoke in a particular area
They were focused on creating buffers against France and a balance of power
Socialism started in 1815 after an observed split in the community occurred from selfish individualism
Marxian socialism united sociology, economics, and all of human history
National feelings stirred discontent
The new boundaries of Europe didn't sit well with German, Italian, or polish people
Revolts began to occur in the 1830's
Count Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) "The age of gold is before us!"
Congress of Vienna
: Where the quadruple alliance agreed to meet to fashion a general peace settlement.
Quadruple Alliance: Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain.
: Austria, Prussia, and Russia; embarked on a crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution; conservative by nature
: The idea of liberty and equality
Nationalism: All people had its own genius and its own cultural unity
: An economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
: Wealthiest of the middle class
: Belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and life
A late 18th- and early 19th-century style in architecture, decorative art, and fine art, based on the imitation of surviving classical models and types
The empire of Napoleon I fell in the spring of 1814
The Alliance planned to restore the power of monarchies in Europe. They opposed individual freedom and rights.
Czar Alexander I represented Russia
Frederick William III of Prussia
Viscount Castlereagh represented Britain
Francis I of Austria had Metternich as his diplomat
Sweden, Spain, and Portugal also sent representatives although they had little influence at the congress
Britain & France now had constitutional monarchies
Governments in Eastern and Central Europe were more conservative
The Third of May
Goya's painting one of the most memorable during Romanticism
Images of man's inhumanity to fellow man
Napoleon's armies occupied Spain
Madrid rose up against the French
French army took revenge by executing hundreds of rebels
Goya not able to record events until half a decade later The painting transcends specific historical setting
Displays two principal features of Goya's strikingly art: Ability to produce images that are direct, and his questioning but ultimately detached morality
Romanticism vs. Neoclassicism
Oath of the Horatii
Most famous works of neoclassical painter Jacques-Louis David
Strong classical theme to piece
Painting depicts a heroic episode
Three sons of Horatius swear on swords to sacrifice their lives in defense of Rome
David offered the virtues of the Horatii as a contrast to contemporary French values
The painting was greeted with lavish praise
Acclaimed by critics as the most beautiful painting of the century
Disagreement between Russia and Prussia on one hand and Britain and Austria on the other about boundary provisions in Eastern Europe led to a threat of renewed hostilities.
France was invited to send a representative to the Congress of Vienna and was, thereafter, involved as the fifth great power of the Grand Alliance.
Negotiators agreed to establish a barrier of strong states along the french Eastern border
The kingdom of the Netherlands was created out of Holland and Belgium
The boundaries established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 lasted until the Italian war for unification in 1859
The congress helped to renew the power of the established churches.
Before Napoleon put state before church, but that changed after his fall
Organized religion gained popularity once again as money was continuously donated to the Catholic church
Age of Science during 19th Century
Scientific technique challenged the 'traditional' Christian mindset
Debate between Faith and Reason starts again
Charles Darwin and Evolution
Christians vs. Scientific thought
Through the congress of Vienna
Russia kept Finland and controlled part of Prussia
Since France was buffered by the other states its boarders were reduced to the same frontiers of 1790
Due to Russia gaining new territory, Prussia and Russia also gained in order to keep that balance of power
Germany had a confederation of 39 states with the Austrian Empire as its president
Liberal thinkers clashed with conservative monarchists and continued to demand voting rights and basic freedoms
Promotional groups were formed aiming towards a constitutional government
Publishers wanted laws passed to protect intellectual property
Congress of Vienna Review Questions
1: The main flaw of the Congress of Vienna settlement was that it?
2: The most important symbol of Romanticism became the?
3: Who represented Russia at the Congress of Vienna?
4: The three principles of the Congress of Vienna were?
5: Who wanted an absolute monarchy?
6: Who wanted a democracy and freedom of thought, press, religion, speech, & assembly?
1: Refused to recognize the strength of nationalism and French revolutionary values and ideals
2: The isolated individual in heroic struggle
3: Czar Alexander I
4: Legitimacy, Indemnity, and Balance of Power
Very Important People
Tsar Alexander I
King Fredrick William III (Russia)
Klemens von Metternich