Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Unit 3

Fall 2016: Biology - Matter & Energy (Chapter 4 & 13)
by

Jordan Rowlen

on 6 November 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Unit 3

fungi and bacteria can produce lactic acid during fermentation

humans use these microorganisms to make cheese and yogurt
Fermentation is an ANAEROBIC process.

fermentation
: cellular process that makes ATP without using oxygen

begins with glycolysis (the same as cellular respiration),
giving the body a
net gain of 2 ATP molecules

makes sugar using CO2 and energy (ATP)

happens in stroma (outside of thylakoids)

CO2 is added to the cycle.

Chemical reactions in the cycle build a simple sugar (usually glucose) - which stores some of the energy captured from sunlight.
converts sunlight energy to chemical energy

happens in the thylakoids

Chlorophyll captures light energy.

Chloroplasts use light energy to break down H2O (into O2 and H2).

O2 is released.

H2 is sent to Calvin cycle as ATP and other energy-rich molecules.
chloroplast
: organelle where photosynthesis occurs

chlorophyll
: chemical compound that gives chloroplasts (and plants) their green color


stomata
: part of the leaf where O2 and CO2 enter/exit (how they get to the chloroplast for photosynthesis)
Chapter 4
an organism that cannot make its own food (must obtain energy from producers or other consumers)

"consumer" or "decomposer"

examples: humans, squirrels, jaguars, fungi, etc.
not sufficient for long term activity, but can help with short bursts of activity, when you cannot provide enough O2 fast enough

fermentation leads to build up of lactic acid (which is the waste product of fermentation) - giving you feeling of fatigue

heavy breathing also occurs as you try to restore oxygen supply in your body
happens in the inner mitochondrial membrane

uses oxygen and energy from Krebs to make
up to 34 ATP molecules
Stage 1: Glycolysis
Stage 2: Krebs Cycle
Stage 3: Electron Transport
(in cytoplasm)
(2 three-carbon molecules)
matrix
: thick fluid enclosed by the inner membrane

folds
(of the inner membrane): allows for many sites for cellular reactions to occur (more folds = more ATP production)
Photosynthetic organisms are called
producers
.

Producers produce the source of chemical energy for
themselves
and for other organisms.
Producers
photosynthesis is almost the opposite of cellular respiration

reactants
:
CO2
and
H2O

products
:
glucose
(sugar) and
O2
Unit 3: Matter & Energy
Concept 4.1
Chemical Energy and ATP
Cells and Energy
Concept 4.6
Fermentation
Concept 4.4
Cellular Respiration
Concept 4.2
Photosynthesis
Autotrophs
Heterotrophs
Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
an organism that makes its own food (oftentimes through "photosynthesis")

"producer"

examples: plants, algae, photosynthetic bacteria
Plants use light energy to make organic molecules.

These organic molecules are used to create a source of energy (ATP) for the plant
and
those that consume the plant.
sunlight
organic molecule
Obtaining ATP
Organisms break down organic molecules (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins) to produce ATP.
The ATP Cycle
ATP is recyclable - it has a continual cycle.

ATP ADP ATP ADP ATP
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
aerobic
: requires oxygen

anaerobic
: does not require oxygen
ATP Holds Energy
ATP = adenosine triphosphate

ATP carries the energy used for cell processes.

When a phosphate group breaks off of ATP, energy is released.
(ATP becomes ADP (adenosine diphosphate).)
ATP and Cellular Work
Three types of cellular work that ATP helps with:
chemical work
mechanical work
transport work
Overall Equation for Cellular Respiration
glucose (sugar) = main fuel for cellular respiration

38 ATP molecules are produced from each glucose molecule through cellular respiration.
Mitochondria
found in almost all eukaryotic cells

where cellular respiration takes place

makes most of a cell's ATP
Overview of Cellular Respiration
metabolism
: all of the cell's chemical processes (including cellular respiration)

therefore, cellular respiration is considered to be a "metabolic pathway"
Stage 2: Krebs Cycle
breaks down glucose even further

happens in the matrix of the mitochondria

CO2 is given off as waste

net gain: 2 ATP molecules
Stage 1: Glycolysis
glycolysis = breaking down glucose

happens outside of the mitochondria - in the cytoplasm

anaerobic process

uses 2 ATP to make 4 ATP
net gain: 2 ATP molecules
Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase Action
two parts:
electron transport
AND
ATP production in ATP synthase
Adding Up the ATP Molecules
1 glucose molecule 38 molecules of ATP
Alcoholic Fermentation
when microorganisms (like yeast) are left in anaerobic environment, they ferment sugar and other foods - producing alcohol and CO2 (instead of lactic acid)

humans use this characteristic to ferment beer, wine, and in making bread (CO2 makes bread rise)
1
38
Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
TOTAL
Electron Transport
This process can generate up to
34 ATP molecules
.
Chloroplasts
Overview of Photosynthesis
The Light Reactions
The Calvin Cycle
Light Energy and Pigments
sunlight = electromagnetic energy (travels in waves)

wavelength
: length between each wave of electromagnetic energy; determines different types of electromagnetic energy
pigment
: compound that gives object its color

Waves are either:
absorbed
,
transmitted
, or
reflected
.
Pigments and Color
Chloroplast Pigments
(A plant's leaves have the most photosynthesis occurring - therefore, leaves are usually always green.)
stroma
: inner membrane of the chloroplast

thylakoid
: disk-shaped sacs that are arranged in stacks called
grana
The Mitochondrion at Work
(Notice the ATP synthase spin!)
Videos for Additional Help
Khan Academy on Cellular Respiration
Bozeman Science on Cellular Respiration
Videos for Additional Help
Crash Course on Cellular Respiration
(shorter)
(longer)
Shorter wavelengths are more damaging to organic molecules (like proteins and nucleic acids).
Leaf chloroplasts absorb blue-violet and red-orange light. They do not absorb green - it is transmitted or reflected.
chlorophyll
a
: absorbs mainly blue-violet and red light and reflects green
chlorophyll
b
: absorbs mainly blue and orange light and reflects yellow-green
carotenoids
: absorb mainly blue-green and reflects yellow-orange
Summary of Photosynthesis
Remember: Photosynthesis is the ultimate source of all the food you eat and all the oxygen you breathe.
The Carbon and Oxygen Cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle
The Water Cycle
The Basic Pattern of Chemical Cycling
Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling
Food Chains
Food Webs
Productivity of Ecosystems
Ecological Pyramids
producers
: convert the light energy from sunlight to the chemical energy of organic compounds

consumers
: obtain chemical energy by feeding on producers or other consumers

decomposers
: break down wastes and dead organisms
as living things use chemical energy, they release thermal energy in the form of heat to their surroundings
light energy


chemical energy


thermal energy (heat)
Energy is not recycled
within an ecosystem -
it flows
through it and out! (Producers must continue to receive energy as input for the ecosystem to survive.)
Chemicals
- like carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen -
can be recycled
between living and nonliving parts of the ecosystems and the biosphere.
food chain
: a model that shows a sequence of feeding relationships

follows the connection between one producer and a single chain of consumers within an ecosystem
in terrestrial ecosystems: plants are the main producers
in aquatic ecosystems: phytoplankton (photosynthetic protists and bacteria), algae, and aquatic plants are the main produce
rs
Primary consumers feed directly on producers. (herbivores)
Examples:
in terrestrial ecosystems: insects, birds, antelope, deer
in aquatic ecosystems: zooplankton (protists and microscopic animals that feed on phytoplankton)

Secondary consumers eat primary consumers. (carnivores that eat herbivores)
Examples:
in terrestrial ecosystems: small mammals and reptiles that eat insects, large carnivores that eat rodents and grazing mammals
in aquatic ecosystems: small fish that eat zooplankton
Tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers. (carnivores that eat secondary consumers)
Example:
a snake eating a mouse (which had eaten an insect)
Quarternary consumers are only supported in some ecosystems. When they are present, their numbers are usually very low.
What types of consumers are there?
Herbivore
eats ONLY producers (i.e. horse, etc.)
Carnivore
eats ONLY other consumers (i.e. lion, etc.)
Omnivore
eats BOTH producers and other consumers (i.e. bear, etc.)
Decomposer
break down organic matter into simpler compounds
At each level, organisms produce waste and eventually die.
Decomposers are consumers that obtain energy by feeding on and breaking down dead organisms. These are not always shown in diagrams of food chains, but all ecosystems include decomposers - they are vital to the ongoing recycling of chemicals in the ecosystem.
Simple food chains do not show the complicated feeding relationships that exist in most ecosystems.

Consumers have a variety of food sources and feeding relationships can become interconnected and branching.
OVERVIEW of Ch. 13
Summary of 13.6
Energy Pyramids
Biomass Pyramids
Pyramids of Numbers
There is a limited amount of energy available in an ecosystem - "energy budget." This budget influences the types and numbers of organisms in the ecosystem.
Only 1% of sunlight
reaching producers is captured for photosynthesis.
not all ecosystems are equal
The level of primary productivity sets the "
energy budget
."
(This means that the productivity of producers determines how much energy available to higher trophic levels in an ecosystem.)
At each step of the food web, energy is "spent" in three ways when it is transferred to higher levels (given to its consumer):
used as waste
used for energy for life processes
transformed into consumer's biomass (AKA growth)
Example: Caterpillar eats a leaf.
50% of leaf energy is passed through the caterpillar as waste
35% of leaf energy is used for caterpillar energy
15% of leaf energy is used for caterpillar to grow
energy pyramid
: shows the distribution of energy among trophic levels

Energy pyramids compare energy used by producers and other organisms on trophic levels.

10% of energy in each trophic level goes to the next.
90% is lost as heat.
Note: The amount of energy provided to support the higher trophic levels is significantly smaller than what is available to primary consumers.
represents the actual biomass (dry mass of all organisms) in each trophic level
represents the individual organisms in each trophic level
UNLIKE ENERGY, CHEMICALS CYCLE WITHIN AN ECOSYSTEM.
Chemical cycles involve three steps:
1)
Producers make organic compounds
by using chemicals from the non-living environment.
2)
Consumers eat these producers
- using some of their own chemicals and the producer's chemicals - and release some back into the environment as waste.
3)
Decomposers break down dead producers and consumers
- supplying the soil, water, and air with the chemicals from detritus in an inorganic (non-living) form.

Producers then use these inorganic components to restart the cycle.
The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrification
Denitrification
Honors Only
three stages to cellular respiration:
1) Glycolysis
2) Krebs cycle
3) electron transport/ATP synthase
Honors Only
Honors Only
This cycle happens 2x per glucose (hence, 2 ATP made.)
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Fermentation
Honors Only
Photosynthesis occurs in two stages:
the light reactions
and
the Calvin cycle
.
Honors Only
Honors Only
Honors Only
Examples: scavengers (earthworms, some rodents and insects, crayfish, catfish, and vultures), bacteria, and fungi
Chemical Energy
a form of potential energy stored in organic molecules
In
animals
, digestion breaks down food into smaller molecules that can be used to make ATP.

In
plants
, plant cells make their own sugars (using sunlight) that can be used to make ATP.
Photosynthesis
Cellular
Respiration
contains chemical energy
(chemical energy)
(light energy)
ATP
(Some material from 4.3 will be covered in conjunction with 4.2 for Honors Biology.)
(Light-Independent Reactions)
(ATP)
Calvin Cycle
Additional Videos for Photosynthesis
Stomata
(Some material from 4.5 will be covered in conjunction with 4.4 for Honors Biology.)
Cellular respiration is aerobic - it requires oxygen in order to take place.
Honors Only
Honors Only
Honors Only
Comparing Cellular Respiration to Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Cellular
Respiration
Honors Only
Concept 13.3
Energy in Ecosystems
Concept 13.4
Food Chains and Food Webs
Concept 13.6
Pyramid Models
Concept 13.5
Cycling of Matter
trophic level
: feeding level in a food chain

energy flows up a food chain from the lowest trophic level to the highest
(Omnivores, such as humans that eat both plants and animals, may be listed at different trophic levels in different food chains.)
The stability of any food web depends on the presence of producers, as they form the base of the food web.
Recall: Biomass is a measure of the total dry mass of organisms in a given area.
Notice: A vast number of producers are required to support even a few top level consumers.
(AKA Hydrologic Cycle)
biogeochemical cycle
: the movement of a particular chemical through the biological and geological parts of an ecosystem
Biogeochemical Cycles
Cycles we will study:
Water
Oxygen
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen Cycle
Oxygen cycles indirectly through an ecosystem by the cycling of other nutrients.
Carbon is emitted by the burning of fossil fuels. Some carbon is stored for long periods of time in areas called carbon sinks.
80% of atmosphere is nitrogen gas.

Some bacteria convert
nitrogen gas into ammonia
through a process called
nitrogen fixation
. Ammonia released into the soil is transformed into ammonium.

Nitrifying bacteria change the
ammonium into nitrate
through a process called
nitrification
.

Nitrogen moves through the food web and returns to the soil during decomposition.
Carbon Cycle
Honors Only
Honors Only
Honors Only
Honors Only
Chapter 13
Principles of Ecology
3.1.A & B
3.1.C
3.1
3.1.D
3.1.D
3.4
3.4
3.7
3.2.B
3.2.C
3.2.B
3.2.B
3.2.A
3.2.D
3.2.D
3.2.D
3.2.D
3.2
3.5.A
3.3
3.3.B
3.3.A
3.3.C
3.3.C
3.3.C
3.3.C
3.3.C
3.3.C
3.3.C
Honors Only
3.3.C
3.4
3.4
3.5.B
3.5.C
3.5.C
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.8 & 3.9
3.8
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.8.A
3.9
3.8.A
3.10.B
3.10.A
3.10.A & C
3.6 & 3.11
3.6 & 3.11
3.11
3.11
3.11.A
3.11.A
3.11.B
3.11.B
3.11.B
3.11.B
3.11.C
3.11.C
3.11.C
humans can use fermentation as a back-up if they need more ATP than what they get from cellular respiration
Importance of Fermentation in Humans
3.5.B
Full transcript