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Nuclear Chemistry

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Yev Dulla

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry - branch of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties Radioactivity - spontaneous emission of particles and/or ionizing radiation by unstable nuclei of elements with high atomic weight, resulting in a smaller and more stable nucleus with lower energy radionuclides - radioactive nuclei radioisotopes - atoms of radionuclides Chemical Reactions Nuclear Reactions rearrangement of atoms by the breaking and forming of chemical bonds involves the electrons in the outermost atomic orbitals involves absorption and release of a relatively smaller amount of energy (only due to bond breakage and bond formation) elements / isotopes are converted to new ones nucleons and electrons can be involved tremendous amount of energy is absorbed or released due to nuclear binding energy Radioactive Decay - spontaneous emission of particles or EMR by unstable nuclei Most Common Types of Radioactive Decay: Alpha radiation Beta radiation Gamma radiation emission of Helium-4 (alpha) particles emission of high speed electrons emission of high energy photons
usually accompanies other emissions
generally not shown in equations Radioactive series - series of nuclear reactions starting with an unstable nucleus and ending with a stable one Nuclear Reactions particles typically involved are the proton, neutron, electron, positron and alpha particle U-238 -> Th-234
I-131 -> Xe-131
C-11 -> B-11
N-14 -> O-17
Ne-20 -> Ne-21
O-17 + C-12 -> O-16 + ?
H-2 + N-14 -> C-13 + ? Nuclear Transmutation nucleus undergoes change as a result of bombardment of particles or other nuclei N-14 + neutron -> C-14 + ?
N-14 + proton -> ?
Al-27 + alpha -> P-30 electron capture capture by the nucleus of an inner shell electron from the electron cloud that surrounds the nucleus nuclear fission and fusion fission - bigger to smaller nuclei
fusion - smaller nuclei to bigger nuclei nuclear chain reaction self sustaining sequence of nuclear fission reactions supercritical mass
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