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Chapter 20: The Americas and Society and Culture in the West
Transcript of Chapter 20: The Americas and Society and Culture in the West
1. Latin America in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries
Latin America was long under monarchial colonial rule.
What influences affected the desire of the creole elite for independence?
Leaders like Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin involved in these movements.
With the Napoleonic Wars Spain and Portugal suffer greatly
What was the time period of the Latin American Wars of Independence?
Haitian revolt finishes in 1804.
Mexico first rebels in 1810 under Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and the Cry of Dolores.
Why do many in Mexico not support Father Hidalgo's movement?
1821 Mexican Empire formed under Agustin de Iturbide.
Elsewhere similarly creole led revolts begin.
Bolivar liberates northern South America.
San Martin liberates the southern parts with his bold advance across the Andes.
Conflict between the two leads to Bolivar finishes the wars of independence in Peru in 1824.
After the war how did both figures feel about their achievements?
He arado en el mar y he sembrado en el viento.
Latin America subsequently broke up into a number of states, why?
Brazil became independent during this period too in a unique manner.
Many in Europe still sought to put down the colonial revolts, for what reasons were they unable to do so?
Many difficulties in post-war period.
What type of governments did Latin American states form and what problems did they have?
Rise of caudillos- both conservative and radical.
Latin America sees Spain replaced economically by Great Britain.
Trade patterns largely stay the same between Latin America, Europe and North America.
Land lord issues persist to such a degree that large quantities of land remain fallow.
Elites very europeanized and ran country largely for their exclusive benefit.
After 1870, there is an export boom, what products become profitable for Latin America?
In 1888 slavery ends in Brazil, the story of os confederados.
Expansion of the middle class and growing urbanization.
Working conditions unfortunately advance little.
European migration strongly begins around the turn of the century, what groups migrate there and to where?
Political changes occur as elites take over and govern in their own interests with highly restricted voting.
Porfirio Diaz, 1876-1910, Mexico. 95% of the population controls no land and less than 1000 families control almost all.
"Pobre Mexico tan lejos de dios, tan cerca de..."
1910-1920 the Mexican Revolution led to reform but much destruction.
By 1900 the United States becomes the most important influence in the region both politically and economically.
1898 the Spanish-American War and the introduction of the American Empire.
1898-1934 American occupations and interventions throughout the region.
2. The North American Neighbors: The United States and Canada
3. The Emergence of Mass Society
4. Cultural Life: Romanticism and Realism in the Western World.
5. Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments
Chapter 20: The Americas and Society and Culture in the West
U.S. and Canada had different development paths
Both were comparatively more economically and politically advanced vis-a-vis the Latin American states.
Constitution of 1789 established liberalism and nationalism as core ideologies.
Justice John Marshall asserted the supremacy of the Supreme Court and the constitution.
The presidency of Andrew Jackson allowed the expansion of the voting franchise.
What was probably the biggest early political problem facing the U.S.?
Ongoing North/South Divisions
Cotton economy, slave system and social structure in the South.
In 1860, 22 million in the North, 9 million in the South with almost 4 million slaves there.
Northern politicians fought expansion of slavery.
The election of the first Republican president led directly to the succession of the Southern States.
During the Civil War, 1861-1865, roughly 600,000 people died.
Over the course of the war, how did the attitudes of the U.S. government change towards slavery?
What was the impact of the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation?
By 1864 the tide had firmly turned against the South.
In early 1865, General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House realistically ending the Civil War.
As a result the United States is clearly one nation, indivisible.
Nearly 1/5 of the white male population of the South died during the war.
What actions did the Federal government undertake in the occupied South after the war?
The 13th,14th, and 15th amendments are put into place which make slavery illegal and define citizenship.
What backlashes are there to Radical Reconstruction and how successful was it overall?
Between 1860-1914 the United States becomes a world power and the most industrialized country in the world.
Roughly 40% of the country is urbanized around the turn of the century.
Though the richest country, the quality of life was debatible.
In 1890 9% owned 71% of the wealth.
Increasing growth of labor unions.
What and when was the Progressive Age?
Woodrow Wilson establishes a stronger federal government with income tax, the Federal Reserve System and further intervention in the economy.
U.S. begins to expand overseas, Samoa first.
The annexation of Hawaii in 1898.
Defeat of Spain in 1898, what places did the U.S. occupy as a result?
The Phillipine revolt and christianizing the natives.
Establishment of an official American Empire.
Canada develops along similar but different routes than the U.S.
Into what parts was Canada originally divided and what distinguished them?
Revolt of 1837 and gradual reforms.
What events cause the establishment of the dominion of Canada in 1867?
What rights did the dominion possess and what rights stayed with the British government?
1870-1905 Canada grows across the Prairies due in part to the development of Transatlantic railroads.
Continuing tensions between English and French groups within the country.
In 1896, French and the Quebecois are essentially given federal equality to the Anglo Canadians.
Around the turn of the century, industrialization takes off alongside continued settlement of the west, and large amounts of immigration.
What caused the emergence of mass societies?
Ever improving social conditions.
Many organizations are created for group manipulation.
Ever increasing urbanization, even outside the core industrialized area.
Why did cities grow as fast as they did?
Improvements in sanitation.
Reforms in lower class housing, belief that good housing is needed for all.
Upper classes are roughly 5 percent but control 35-40 percent of the wealth.
Middle class is expanding with an increase in job variety.
Lower middle class is created from the Second Industrial Revolution.
Lower classes still 80 percent but also greater options.
Women still in dependent and restricted positions.
Changing attitudes on birth control and lower number of births per child.
Family orientation creates Christmas and 4th of July traditions.
Greater family interactions between parents and children.
In many cases women worked but as families became more wealthy they worked less.
Increasingly reactionary attempts to attract attention.
Only World War I really changed the situation.
Also education begins to grow during this time period.
State takes over primary schooling.
Why is the state interested in mass education?
Education is ultimately a tool to nationalize the masses, with nationalism replacing religion to a degree.
More education leads to greater female employment.
Leisure pursuits develop out of factory schedule.
What is mass leisure and what are some examples of it?
What is Romanticism and what is it a reaction too?
Attempt to balance reason with emotion.
Interest in the past, Gothic/Medieval as opposed to Classical/Ancient.
Comparative Essay on page 504.
Gothic literature focused on the exotic and unfamiliar, with elements of horror, and written using drug experimentation.
What are some examples of Gothic literature?
Poetry was the highest form of writing.
Love of nature as nature was a mirror for self-reflection.
Paintings should reflect inner feelings.
Eugene Delacroix "A painting should be a feast to the eyes."
New scientific discoveries, such as those of Louis Pasteur and Dmitri Mendeleev
Scientific method established as opposed to faith.
Growing secularization throughout societies.
Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
"The Descent of Man"
By 1850 what style begins to replace romanticism and why?
Novel Madam Bovary by Gustave Flaubert a good example.
These movements also establish themselves in Latin America, North America and the wider world.
People still followed general ideas of scientific revolution and the enlightenment.
Belief in progress and it seemed to be true.
New ideas around 1870-1914 challenged status guo and created modern consciousness.
Science was based on order, reason, cold facts but physics changes this to a degree.
The Newtonian system, the world machine, and the atomic system.
Sigmund Freud, Psychoanalysis, "Interpretations of Dreams"
Undermined ideas of mechanical, rational mind. Behavior was actually contrary.
Repression in childhood important and influences behavior.
Psychoanalysis as a means of resolving problems.
What was social darwinism?
Anti-semitism begins to rise although assimilation is at a high.
Where is the treatment of European Jews worst at in the 19th and early 20th centuries?
72% live here and pogroms are a constant facet of life.
Many European Jews immigrate to the United States or Palestine where Zionism begins.
Culture of Modernity emergences around the turn of the century.
Impressionism in France starting in the 1870s.
Post-impressionism in France in the 1880s, Vincent Van Gogh, Monet, Renoir for example.
What invention causes a rejection of realism and why?
Pablo Picasso and Cubism.
What does Cubism use to represent reality?
Abstract painting by Kandinsky which avoids representation all together.
Movements for women's rights begin to advance.
Most places do not give women property rights until 1900.
Entrance of women into many professions, Florence Nightengale.
Women began fighting for the right to vote, what were they called?
Einstein and the Theory of Relativity, space/time dependent on the observer rather than absolute.