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Tone & Author's Purpose

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on 8 July 2014

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Transcript of Tone & Author's Purpose

ON PAPER
[Let's talk about text.]
TONE
[Tone is mood. Mood is tone.]
EXAMPLES
AUDIO
[In listening, tone of voice indicates emotion.]
EXERCISE 2
PURPOSE
[Why even?]
determine main idea and pattern of organization
Between homicidal anthems and humorously cheerful holiday jams, Sufjan Stevens seems to have more of a grasp on reality than almost anyone. Stephen Hawking may know the inner workings of the universe, but Sufjan is unparalleled in his ability to articulate the sometimes grim reality of life. A majority of people find a simple thought about John Wayne Gacy, Jr. or the inherent possibility of serial violence in us all to be hair-raising. Yet, Sufjan, pushing the boundaries of music and even thought, finds a way to write a poetic ballad expressing such ideas. By presenting such “off-limits” ideologies, Sufjan not only makes a passive aggressive statement, but opens the floor to reality—something that quite a few of us need in our lives. I would say that Sufjan is before his time, but he has invented his own era and beliefs to go along.

To sum everything up, Sufjan Stevens is the definition of reality. Our reality, the reality of our thoughts about reality, and everything in-between. Ironically humble in his demeanor, he is not afraid to bring up anything. This is truly what defines an artist in my opinion. Sufjan doesn’t have to twerk, get a spray tan, or release racy photos to be a prominent, on-edge artist. Sufjan is Sufjan, and Sufjan will always be Sufjan. ("The Man of Reality Steals Our Hearts" by Sara Keys)
EXERCISE 3
determine tone and purpose
A 52-year-old Minneapolis man was lauded as a real-life Superman on Sunday after he bent a car door to save a man from a burning SUV.

Robert Renning, of Woodbury, was driving back from his family's cabin on Interstate 35W in New Brighton when he saw flames spewing from underneath an SUV near him, the Pioneer Press reported. Renning knew he had to act quickly, but by the time he got the driver's attention, the burning SUV had already pulled over.

Acting on "pure adrenaline" alone, Renning pulled over, ran to the burning car and bent the locked door until the window shattered, freeing 51-year-old Michael Johannes from the smoke and flames.

"He bent the door with his bare hands," Johannes, of Minneapolis, told KARE-TV. "It was no tool. It shattered the glass and they were able to pull me out."

Johannes, who has a wife and 7-year-old daughter, suffered minor cuts and smoke inhalation. Renning, however, suffered no injuries.

It is not yet clear why the breaks of Johannes' 2006 Chevy Trailblazer suddenly failed and the SUV began filling up with smoke. Johannes tried to escape but the car locked him in, trapping him inside until Renning grabbed the top of door frame and used his foot as leverage until the glass broke.

Renning has "no clue" where his Superman abilities came from. Police arrived at the scene moments later and thanked him for his bravery.

"I feel this man deserves any and all commendation for his extraordinary life-saving measure that kept another from burning alive," Minnesota State Patrol trooper Zachary Hill told the Pioneer Press.

But Renning, a sergeant in the Air National Guard, said he was just lending a helping hand when he came across the burning vehicle.

"I don't think I did anything different than anyone else would have done had they gotten into the car ahead of me," Renning told KARE-TV. "That's just my take. I helped him out of the car. That's good enough."

Johannes said the incident had more of an emotional impact than a physical one.

"All I can do is thank him," he told KARE-TV. "My wife thanks him. My daughter does. We will meet up with him and I'll have her give him a big hug."

("Man Bends Car Door to Save Driver from Burning SUV" by Oulimata Ba)
EXERCISE 1
determine tone and purpose
Hugh Blackley bumbled about in his old age until he reached the sand, which was as dry and crusty as his feet. His weathered eyes drank up the vast expanse of ocean in front of him. It was almost as if the salty body of water was too much for him to take in. He released the gasp that had long been kept secret in the cage of his chest. The old man collapsed onto his knees. More breath escaped his mouth, almost as if he was trying to say something. The ocean itself graced Mr. Blackley with its own fizzing response. A wave glided up to Blackley’s resting spot, caressing the tips of his knees. The water rejuvenated Blackley’s skin and mood. The man finally eeked out what he was trying to say. A lone syllable crawled out from the mouth, just a hallway to the jumbled labyrinth of Blackley’s thoughts. The syllable was everything Blackley had hoped for in his life, the reason he existed. He grasped at the shackles on his ankles. How he wished they would be gone, for they would always be there to remind him of where he’d been, what he’d done. The syllable was uttered again, accompanied by another realization, a frightening one. The ocean was not only a gateway, but it was also a barrier. Blackley had come so far, only to be stopped by that which would grant him what he wanted. He uttered the syllable again, this time much more urgently. This time, it was almost a question, and a frantic one. “Free.” Hugh Blackley completely collapsed, face in the ground, mouth full of sand. “Free.” The ocean swept him away. He would now be able to traverse it. ("Free" by Tristan Kitch)
Tone & Author's
Pearson Developmental Reading
Constance Ferrari
Emily Miles
Adapted from:
Patricia Osterman
Palm Beach State College
Palm Beach Gardens, FL

The tone of the passage refers to the feelings of the author. It shows the author's attitude toward the subject.
[Enthusiasm vs Sarcasm]
Enthusiasm
Sarcasm
Bro, that is totally rad!
Look at that cool dude over there!
I'm doing so well!
Rad, man.
That's one cool dude over there.
I am doing so well.
Though neither person forms a coherent sentence, the listener can infer emotion from vocal manipulation. Unfortunately, this is not the case with reading.
In the context of written word, there are two main indicators of tone: diction and punctuation.
DICTION
[Most simply, this is word choice.]
PUNCTUATION
[?!.",':";!?..."?]
When considering diction, a reader must not only examine the
denotation
of the word but must also look at the
connotation
.
For example,
house
and
dwelling
are technically synonymous; however, they definitely harbor different connotations. As a result, the employment of
house
evokes images of homey comfort.
Dwelling
, on the other hand, probably does not bring to focus memories of lemonade on the porch.
As seen in the "enthusiasm vs sarcasm" example, the difference between a period and an exclamation point is immense. Punctuation can signal pauses as well as indicate intended reading pace and volume, therein affecting tone.
TO INFORM
[Objectivity and neutrality are key.]
Informational writing can be used to illustrate, explain, instruct, clarify, analyze, define, classify, compare, and contrast.
Some informational sources are textbooks, newspaper articles, instruction manuals, and documentary films.
TO PERSUADE
[Subjectivity and point of view are key.]
Persuasive writing can be used to advise, convince, criticize, praise, evaluate, argue, compare, and contrast.
Some persuasive sources are editorials, advertisements, commercials, and promotional materials.
TO ENTERTAIN
[Subjectivity and story are key.]
Entertaining writing can be used to amuse, scare, and create general emotional reaction.
Some informational sources are stories, jokes, biographies, and documentaries.
Tone and Purpose
[Remember your options.]
Tone
Positive
Neutral
Negative
powerful
intimate
flippant
objective
lofty
charismatic
dignified
informal
nostalgic
tranquil
indifferent
puzzled
incredulous
subdued
indirect
subjective
shifting
baffled
evasive
sardonic
antagonistic
harsh
complex
salacious
ghoulish
melancholy
abhorrent
Organizational Patterns
[Here are a few options.]
Chronological
Sequential
Spatial
Compare and Contrast
Advantages and Disadvantages
Cause and Effect
Problem and Solution
Topical
Purpose
inform
entertain
persuade
enlighten
describe
shock
investigate
condemn
ridicule
Tone and Purpose
[Remember your options.]
Tone
Positive
powerful
intimate
flippant
objective
lofty
charismatic
dignified
informal
nostalgic
Neutral
tranquil
indifferent
puzzled
incredulous
subdued
indirect
subjective
shifting
baffled
Negative
evasive
sardonic
antagonistic
harsh
complex
salacious
ghoulish
melancholy
abhorrent
Purpose
inform
entertain
persuade
enlighten
describe
shock
investigate
condemn
ridicule
DELVING
into diction
Denotation:
the literal, or "dictionary," definition of a word
Connotation:
working in conjunction with denotation, the feeling or idea evoked by a word
While denotation allows a speaker to convey general concepts, connotation opens the door to nuances, which indicate more specific meaning and emotion toward the subject.
Lame
Pre-1300
: Old English
lama
"crippled, lame;
paralytic, weak," from Proto-Germanic
lamon
(cognates: Old Norse
lami,
Dutch and Old Frisian
lam
, German
lahm
"lame"), "weak-limbed," literally "broken," with derivatives meaning "crippled" (cognates: Old Church Slavonic
lomiti
"to break," Lithuanian
luomas
"lame"). In Middle English, "crippled in the feet," but also "crippled in the hands; disabled by disease; maimed."
1942
: Sense of "socially awkward" is attested.
Noun meaning "crippled persons collectively" is in late Old English.
Fag
1590s
: probably from earlier contemptuous term
for "woman"
1785
: It also may have roots in British public
school slang
fag
"a junior who does certain duties for a senior."
1888
: British slang for "cigarette" (originally,
especially, the butt of a smoked cigarette)
1914
: "male homosexual," American English slang,
especially an old and unpleasant one, in reference to
faggot
"bundle of sticks," as something awkward that has to be carried.
Queer
c.1500
: "strange, peculiar, eccentric," from
Scottish, perhaps from Low German (Brunswick dialect)
queer
"oblique, off-center," related to German
quer
"oblique, perverse, odd," from Old High German
twerh
"oblique"
1922
: sense of "homosexual" first recorded
1935
: noun in this sense is first recorded
Swag
c.1300
: "round bag"
1580s
: "big, blustering fellow"
1650s
: "a lurching or swaying," from
swag

meaning "ornamental festoon" (1794)
1839
: English criminal's slang for "quantity of
stolen property, loot," which may represent separate borrowings from the Scandinavian source.
2001
: colloquial sense of "promotional material" in
use
Queer
Lame
Fag
Swag
WHAT
DOES IT
MEAN
TO YOU?
Source: Online Etymology Dictionary
Purpose
Full transcript