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World Geography STAAR List

period 6 1/10/13

Nayeli Holguin

on 4 March 2013

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Transcript of World Geography STAAR List

Water and Landforms Hydrologic Cycle- The continuous circulation of water among the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth
Drainage Basin- An area drained by a major river and its tributaries
Water Table- The level at which rock is saturated
Landforms- A naturally formed feature on the surface of the earth
Delta- A fan- like landform made of deposited sediment, left by a river that slows as it enters the ocean
Glacier- A large, long-lasting mass of ice that moves because of gravity Internal Forces Shaping the Earth Tectonic Plates/Forces- An enormous moving shelf that forms the earth's crust
Divergent Boundary- Plates that move apart or spread
Convergent Boundary- Plates collide with each other, causing one plate to either dive under or ride up over the other plate
Transform Boundary- When tectonic plates slide past one another
Fault- A fracture in the earth's crust where plates move past each other Types of Regions Formal Regions- A region defined by a limited number of related characteristics. Latin America, Southwest Asia, and East Asia are examples
Functional Regions- A region organized around a set of interactions and connections between places. For example, a city and its suburbs form a functional region
Perceptual Regions- A region in which people perceive, or see, the characteristics of the region in the same way Solstice- Either of two times of the year when the sun's rays shine directly overhead at noon at the farthest points north or south, and that mark the beginning of summer and winter; in the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice is the longest day and the winter solstice the shortest
Equinox- Each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn
Tropic of Cancer- The farthest point north the sun’s rays shine overhead at noon
Tropic of Capricorn- The farthest point south the sun’s ray shines overhead at noon Parts of the Earth Earthquakes Seismograph- Measures the size of the waves created by an earthquake
Epicenter- The point directly above the focus( where the earthquake begins) on the earth's surface
Richter Scale- Uses information collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake
Tsunami- A giant wave in the ocean caused by an earthquake
Ring of Fire- A zone around the rim of the Pacific Ocean where the majority of active volcanoes are found Unit 1 Climate Region- A region that experiences particular weather conditions over many years. Temperature and precipitation are the two most significant factors. Topography, elevation, and location on a continent also impact a region’s climate
Tropical- Refers to regions with little variation in temperature. Typically tropical regions receive large of amount of rain
Tundra- The flat treeless land forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean; the climate region of the Arctic Ocean
Permafrost- Permanently frozen ground Absolute Location- The exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found
Relative Location- Describes a place in relation to other places around it
Hemisphere- Each half of the globe
Equator- The imaginary line that encircles the globe, dividing the earth into northern and southern halves
Prime Meridian- The imaginary line at zero meridian used to measure longitude east and west, and dividing the earth's east and west halves; also called the Greenwich Meridian because it passes through Greenwich, England
Latitude- a set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator, and that are used in locating places north and south. The equator is labeled the zero-degree line for latitude
Longitude- a set of imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles, dividing it east and west. The prime meridian is labeled the zero-degree line for longitude Map Reading Map Reading Pt.2 Topographic Map- A general reference map; a representation of natural and man-made features on the earth
Global Positioning System- A series of satellites that rely geographic information to earth. Used by hikers, sailors, drivers
Geographic Information System- Technology that uses digital map information to create a databank; different "data layers" can be combined to produce specialized maps. GIS allows geographers to analyze different aspects of a specific place to solve problems
Scale- Scale shows the ratio between a unit of length on the map and a unit of distance on the earth
Physical Map- A map that shows the types of landforms and bodies of water found a specific area
Political Map- A map that shows features on the earth's surface that humans created
Thematic Map- Maps that focus on specific types of information. Some thematic maps show weather, natural resources or economic activities. Some types of thematic maps are: Qualitative Maps, Cartograms, and Flow-Line Maps Core- The solid metallic center of the earth and is made up of iron and nickel
Mantle- A soft layer of molten rock about 1,800 miles thick
Magma- Molten rock created when the mantle melts the underside of the crust
Crust- The thin layer of rock at the earth's surface Structure of the Earth Lithosphere- The solid rock portion of the earth's surface
Hydrosphere- The waters comprising the earth's surface, including oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, and vapor in the atmosphere
Atmosphere- The layers of gases immediately surrounding the earth
Biosphere- All the parts where plants and animals live, including the atmosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere Seasons External Forces Shaping the Earth Mechanical Weathering- A natural process that breaks rock into smaller pieces
Chemical Weathering- A process that changes rock into a new substance through interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock
Erosion- The result of weathering on matter, created by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity
Glaciations- The changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers Soil and Vegetation Humus- Organic material in soil
Soil Building- The process where organic material becomes fertile soil
Ecosystem- An interdependent community of plants and animals
Biomes- Regional ecosystems. Biomes are divided into forest,grassland, desert, and tundra Weather and Climate Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time
Climate- The typical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over time
Precipitation- Falling of water droplets in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or half
Wind Systems- Help distribute the sun’s heat from one part of the world to another
Ocean Currents- Impacts the temperature of an area and the amount of precipitation a region receives Hurricanes- A storm that forms over warm, tropical ocean waters
Typhoon- A tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific
Tornado- A powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling air
Blizzard- A heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one-quarter mile
Drought- A long period without rain or with very minimal rainfall Weather Extremes Climate Pt2 Culture Population Culture- The total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group
Ethnic Minority- An individual who identifies with the minority population of a region. Members of ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in political power, and in some cases, persecuted for their ethnicity
Religious Minority- An individual who belongs to a minority religion in a region. India is largely a Hindu nation yet it also has a sizeable Muslim and Sikh population
Multicultural Society- A population that contains several culture groups. The groups tend to preserve at least some of their culture characteristics such as religion, language and food preference Cultural Change and Exchange Innovation- Taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet a new need. Some innovations have changed the course of history such as the domestication of horses or the invention of the printing press. Other innovations, such as electric cars, address the demands of the marketplace
Diffusion- The spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies
Cultural Hearth- The heartland or place of origin of a major culture; a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to other cultures
Acculturation- The cultural change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation Cultural Beliefs and Expression Custom- Practice routinely followed by a group of people
Nationalism- A belief that people or ethnic groups should have their own government or homeland
Patriotism- Devotion to one’s country.The idea that you should be loyal to and support your country’s laws and have pride in your country
Cultural Landscapes- The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various groups Religion Monotheistic-A belief in the existence of only one god
Christianity- A monotheistic religion which is also the world's largest religion by membership. Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination but others exist such as the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant faiths.
Islam- The world's second largest religion. Members of the Islamic religion are called Muslims who follow the teachings of the prophet Muhammad. Islam is often divided into two groups- Shi'ites and Sunnis- though other groups exist
Judaism- A religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god. According to Jewish teaching, Abraham and God have a covenant in which Jews agree to worship only one God, and God agrees to protect his chosen people
Sikhism- A religion based in northern India. Sikhism combines the Hindu concept of reincarnation with Islamic belief in monotheism. Worldwide there are 30 million Sikhs Religion Pt. 2 Polytheistic- A belief in the existence in many gods
Buddhism- A religion founded in the sixth century and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self- knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal. Buddhism splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict caste system
Hinduism- One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back 4000 years, and origination in the Indus River Valley. Hinduism is unique among the world’s religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins
Animistic- The belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth Demographic Indicators Birthrate- The number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand populations
Fertility Rate- The average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country
Mortality Rate- The number of deaths per thousand
Infant Mortality- The number of deaths among infants under age one as measured per thousand live births
Population Pyramids- Graphic devices that show gender and age distribution of a population
Life Expectancy- An amount in years indicating how long, on average, a resident of a particular place is expected to live
Literacy Rate- An amount, usually a percentage, of a given population who possess the ability to read and write
Population Density- The average number of people who live in a measurable area Movement Push and Pull Factors- Push factors push people from their homeland, while pull factors attract people to a new location
Migration- The movement of peoples within a country or region
Connectivity- The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network Governments Democracy- A type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives
Dictatorship- A type of government in which an individual or group holds complete political power
Monarchy- A type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies
Republic- A government in which citizens elect representatives to rule on their behalf
Theocracy- A state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided. Vatican City and the country of Iran are theocracies
Totalitarian- A political system where the state controls all political and economic power. Media is censored by the state and few individual rights exist. The Soviet Union under Josef Stalin and Nazi Germany are examples of totalitarian governments Settlement Patterns Metropolitan Area- A functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs, linked economically
Suburbs- A political unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city
Urbanization- The dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result
Sustainable Development- Economic and or population growth that does not impact the environment in a lasting negative manner
Infrastructure- The basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems BOLD Economic System Free Enterprise- An economic system in which private individuals own most of the resources, technology, and businesses, and can operate them for profit with little control from the government
Socialist Economic System- An economic system where social or public ownership of resources exist. Economic programs are intended to do the most good for the greatest amount of people
Communist Economic System- A system in which the government holds nearly all political power and the means of production
Traditional Economies- A system where goods and services are traded without exchanging money. This exchange of goods is often called bartering Levels of Development Primary- Economic activities that involve gathering raw materials such as timber for immediate use or to use in making of a final product
Secondary- Economic activities that involve adding value to materials by changing their form. Manufacturing automobiles is an example
Tertiary- Economic activities that involve providing business or professional service. Salespeople, teachers, or doctors are examples
Quaternary- Economic activities that provide information, management, and research services by highly- trained persons Economic Indicators Gross Domestic per Capita- The average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
Standard of Living- A measure of quality of life in a location. Wealth, happiness, health, education are all factors that are used to compare levels of development which establishes a standard of living
Less Developed- A country, or region, that has not attained a specific level of development. Less developed countries have low literacy and inadequate educational programs. The per capita GDP is low and health services are poor. Much of the population in a less developed country lives in poverty
Newly Developed- A country, or region, that has recently attained a specified level of development. Newly developed countries have experienced rapid economic growth in the last 40 years. Often, the discovery and distribution of natural goods provides the spark that initiates the successful economy. South Korea, Singapore and Brazil are considered newly developed countries
More Developed- A country that has attained the highest level of development due to wealth, income, economic and social opportunities. More development countries are usually leaders in technology and scientific innovation. The United States, Canada, Japan and many western European countries are grouped as more developed Economic Production Subsistence Agriculture- An activity where a family produces only enough food to be self-sufficient. If an abundant harvest occurs, the extra crops might be traded for goods and services they cannot produce themselves
Commercial Agriculture-An activity where crops are grown food the purpose of sale. Typically, commercial farms are larger and use more modern labor saving devices than subsistence farming
Cottage Industries-An economic activity performed at home. Labor is usually limited to one craftsman and another family member. Often the cottage industry is the lone provider of a service in a village
Commercial Industries- An economic activity performed in a factory where division of labor exists. Commercial activities usually employ many people who are expected to complete a variety of tasks toward the production of a single item. For example, a pencil factory might employ wood workers, painters, quality control managers and office personnel
Manufacturing-An economic activity that utilizes skilled labor and machines to produce goods for sale. Usually manufacturing refers to the industrial production of goods from raw materials
Service Industries-An economic activity where a service is provided rather than a good. Service workers often perform tasks that most people cannot easily do themselves. Auto mechanics, plumbers, doctors and firemen are considered part of the service industry Trade Globalization- The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales
Outsourcing-When production is moved from one location to another usually to address the rising cost of labor. Outsourcing is often used to describe the loss of American jobs to foreign countries such as China; however outsourcing can refer to the movement of factories from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt
Free Trade Zones- Areas where imported goods are not subject to the same regulations and import taxes (custom duties and tariffs) that might exist elsewhere. Free trade zones are intended to make the transportation of goods across national boundaries easier and less expensive
Export- A product or good that is sold from one country to another. Exports are favorable to the selling, or exporting, country and a drain on the economy of the receiving country. For example, Americans buy coffee from Brazil. Brazilian farmers benefit as American dollars leave the country
Import- A product that is purchased from one country by another. A country imports foreign goods because they cannot produce the item at the price or quality the market demands. For example, the United States imports petroleum because the demand for oil exceeds the supply
NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement. Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries
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