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Society and Culture
Transcript of Society and Culture
-"lively style of ormentations or decorations"
-elaborated and restrictive Fashion Womens dresses were very elaborate, and colors varied.
Dresses and undergarments were cut and styled to show the figure in a modest way. Undergarments included whale bones, and flexible steel.
Things that formed the dresses were drawers, slips, corsets, petticoats, camisoles, bustle (polison), and an underskirt.
Many dresses contained two pieces that were connected with hooks and ties. Most of these dresses were styled with a high V-neck and usually contained one or two skirts. The skirts were cut narrow all around the body, and the underskirts were longer, creating the effect of a short train that flared from the knees to create fullness. Men of the Victorian Era commonly wore vests.
The color of the vest was used to change the tone of the suit.
A vest made of wool or cotton was worn during the day whereas one made of silk was worn at night or saved for special occassions.
Many common accessories included ties, pocket watches, and walking sticks. Pocket watches were a status symbol. Walking sticks could be either simple wood, or topped with brass, but men and women touching skin in public went against the law, so gloves were also very common.
Top hats were also important and saved for special occasions but were worn throughout the day by upperclass men. Queen Victoria Queen Victoria was born at Kensigton Palace on May 24,1819 and was an only child to Edward, the duke of Kent, and Victoria, Duchess of Kent. Victoria was raely mixed with other children.
Royal Progresses were made to aquint the princess with her future kindom. The progresses were between 1832-1835.
Victoria had been heir to the throne since her uncle had no children of his own.
William IV passed away and Victoria became queen at age 18. Her coronation took place on the 28th of June in 1838. Huge crowds gathered for this big event.
Queen Victoria met Prince Albert shortly after her coronation and they fell in love at their second meeting. They became engaged on the 15 of October, 1839. Prince Albert and Queen Victoria had nine children together.
After her husband's death, the queen established strict rules for fashion, so austere that things almost resembled funeral dress. source: http://www.gofashion4u.com/victorian-era-dress-the-elegant-fashion-history.html/victorian-era-dress-patterns source: http://www.ehow.com/about_5437485_history-victorian-era-mens-clothing.html http://www.gofashion4u.com/victorian-era-dress-the-elegant-fashion-history.html/victorian-era-dress-patterns Christmas Laws
The foundation of Victorian England's success revolved around the laws that were passed at the time. Laws did not only say what were the right and wrong things to do in society; they set guidelines that shaped the boundaries of social hierarchy and designated those who were wealthy, which gave the Victorian England its famously distinct levels of social status. Poor Laws stated:
No able-bodied person was to recieve money or other help from the Poor Law authorities except in a workhouse
Conditions in workhouses were to be made very harsh to discourage people from wanting to recieve help
Workhouses were to be built in every parish or, if parishes were too small, in unions of parishes
Ratepayers in each parish or union had to elect a Board of Guardians to supervise the workhouse, to collect the
Poor Rate, and to send reports to the Central Poor Law Commission, and that
The three man Central Poor Law Commission would be appointed by the government and would be responsible
for supervising the Amendment Act throughout the country Child Labor Laws
(three business benefits)
Lowered wages- they could pay the absolute minimum wage of children
Less adequate working and living conditions- they could provide less than satisfactory living conditions and knew that they would have to endure it
Their small bodies and hands were more easily meneuverable- they could fit into small places, and not have as much difficulty with some materials because of having smaller hands. Divorce Laws
Husband proves: adultery
Adultery- interactions with someone outside of a marriage
Incest- interactions with a near relative
Bigamy- marrying again without a legal divorce
Cruelty- physical or mental suffering from a spouse
Desertion- to abandon a spouse without the others consent Economic & political ideas Poverty was a major problem in the late victorian era in london. Populations grew at record rates.
Alfred Marshall was a big economic influence of this time. He brought ideas of supply and demand, managed utility, and cost of production. He was a matematical genious and ceated the first supply and demand graph. In the late victorian era, London had been through periods of democracy, socialism, and marxism.The overall Government was a monarchy.
London was under the rule of Queen Victoria. The reform act was passed as well, extending the right to vote to middle-class males. Lower-Class Middle-Class The Upper-Class Food of the Victorian Era The victorians valued good food. There were great differences between the high-class and lower-class food varieties. The unemployed with little to no money often got by on potato parings, rotten or poor quality vegetables, and scraps. The employed and farm laborors ate reasonably well on a diet consisting of bacon, cheese, sausage, meat, and bread. The wealthy and high-class society used meal times to display their wealth. They dined on fine china, expensive cutlery and were served by servants. Meals could include up to seventy dishes. These dishes were: Savory soup, roast turkey, dressing,a vegetable dish, citrus ice, dinner rolls, jams, jellys, pickles, fancy cake, preserved fruits, coffee, hot punch, water, and ale. Hobbies of the victorian Era The only people that mainly had time and money for hobbies were the wealthy. The hobbies included: Croquet
Horse racing Evergreens were the most popular way to decorate during the holiday season. Garlands framed doorways, wrapped around pillars, and draped over mantels.
The most greenery used were holly, ivy and mistletoe.
Christmas trees were decorated with apples, candles, flowers, paper novelties, candies, and cookies.
Christmas cards were first produced in 1843 by the English painter John Calcott Horsley for his friend Henry Cole. Henry wanted 1000 cards to mail to family and friends and he felt he didn't have the time, so he asked Horsley to help.
Christmas cards were usually given as gifts.
The Victorian dinner table included the ordinary basic table setting, asparagus tongs, oyster forks, fruit knives, spoon warmers, butter coolers, and knife rests. Debutante Tradition The word "debutante" comes from the French word "debuter" which means "to lead off." A debutante is a young lady from an aristocratic family.
Once a young woman was eligible for marriage, she was displayed in front of bachelors and their families. If she didn't marry within three seasons (one season consisted of 50 balls, 60 parties, 30 dinners, 25 breakfasts) she would be considered a failure.
A ball was the most elegant and most common form of display. At a ball, the guests would either line the stairs or enter the ballroom to greet the debutante and the hostess, who was usually the girl's mother. The guest would shake the hostess's hand, then the hostess would introduce the guest to the debutante. A stranger may comment on the debutante's bouquets or tell her to enjoy the ball, while a close friend may comment on the girl's dress.
At an afternoon tea, the second most common form of display, the debutante would wear a simple evening dress, typically pale in color. The hostess would wear and afternoon dress, and they both would wear long gloves. The hostess and the debutante would follow the same "receiving" process as they would at a ball.
At all of these displays, the debutante would invite a few of her best friends to attend with her. These girls always wore evening dresses, and came early and stayed late. Tea Time Afternoon tea was created by Anna, the Seventh Dutchess of Bedford, in 1840 to cure the hunger pangs between lunch and dinner. This was traditionally served between three and four o'clock, and it typically occured in the garden or parlor. The menu normally consisted of sandwhiches, cakes, scones, cookies, assorted pastries, and Devonshire cream.
High tea was developed when the working class discovered afternoon tea. This was a combination of afternoon tea and the evening supper http://www.angelpig.net/victorian/Tea_Afternoon2.gif Inventions Victorian Era England was filled with many inventions. The most important were:
photo paper, 1839 (first photograph taken in 1838)
postage stamps, 1840
Christmas card, 1843
rubber tires, 1845
London Road in Nottingham became the first road to be covered with tarmac, 1845
first glider to fly by a pilot, 1849
first post box, 1850
first public flushing toilet, 1852
first horse-drawn tram, 1860
first underground railway, 1863
electric street lighting began in London, 1878
first electric railway, 1883
first electric underground train, 1890
first comic book, 1890
first hydro-electric power station, 1891 http://www.chiddingstone.kent.sch.uk/homework/victorians/images/inventions/glider.jpg Sources http://www.chiddingstone.kent.sch.uk/homework/victorians/inventiotimeline.html
http://www.erasofelegance.com/history/victorianscience.html Health & Medicine Ether became common in the medical profession in 1846 by American Dentist,William Morton. In 1847 chloroform was introduced as an anaesthetic by James Young Simpson. Chloroform was favored by doctors and hospital staff because it is less flammable than ether, but caused heart attacks. Medicine also benefited from the introduction of antiseptics by Joseph Lister in 1867 in the form of Carbolic acid (phenol). He instructed the hospital staff to wear gloves and wash their hands, instruments, and dressings with a phenol solution and, in 1869, he invented a machine that would spray carbolic acid in the operating theatre during surgery. Anaesthetics made painless dentistry possible http://www.chiddingstone.kent.sch.uk/homework/victorians/children/work.jpg http://www.queen-victorias-scrapbook.org/contents.html