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The Three-Phase Reading Comprehension intervention (3-RCi):
Transcript of The Three-Phase Reading Comprehension intervention (3-RCi):
A Support for Intermediate Grade Word Callers
Diehl, H.L., Armitage, C. J., Nettles, D.H. & Peterson, C. (2011)
Reading Horizons, V51.2
This article describes the results of a reading comprehension intervention for students with adequate decoding but poor comprehension skills.
The intervention involved explicit teaching and gradual release of instruction in three phases: metacognitive strategies,
and peer-led discussions.
Contribution to Scientific Knowledge
It is fair to say that this article contributes to the greater scientific knowledge of learner support for reading comprehension. It does this by:
Providing a clear model for practically teaching reading comprehension, by incorporating various strategies.
Gives the target group insight into what both the teachers’ and readers’ needs are.
Providing recommendations for future research.
Intermediate phase teachers
(all teachers; principals; learning support professionals; educational psychologists and parents)
approach (qualitative and quantitative)
Five teachers and
from two rural public schools participated in this
Teachers met with identified students in a small group setting for
30 intervention sessions
To measure growth in reading comprehension, the
Qualitative Reading Inventory-3
was administered as the pre- and posttest and analyzed through t-test comparisons
was achieved by collecting data on numerous participants in a variety of settings, across multiple collection points, and by using different data collection tools
Issues of Concern
C. Move from teacher-
directed perspective toward a student-centered process approach
Research on comprehension instruction offers guidance for designing instruction that capitalizes on the constructive nature of making meaning
B. Comprehension is difficult to teach
Teacher knowledge of how to teach and implement comprehension strategies - crucial variable in student achievement
There is a need for new knowledge and support as they implement methods for teaching reading comprehension strategies to their students
A. Students who can read but cannot comprehend
Consistent challenge that teachers face
'Word callers' - more prevalent in the later years of primary school
Typical instruction in primary grades often results in strong word recognition skills at the expense of comprehension abilities
Nature of Intervention
Three key types of instruction:
1. Instruction in metacognitive strategies
2. The reciprocal teaching framework -
predicting, questioning, summarizing, and clarifying
3. Opportunity to discuss the text with their peers
The Three-Phase Reading Comprehension Intervention
(3-RCI) incorporates teaching through three phases, one for each of the key types of instruction, where each phase is grounded in the gradual release instruction cycle.
(a) To investigate the effectiveness of a reading intervention program that integrates all three of these key types of instruction and
(b) To gain insight into the particular instructional nuances that lead to comprehension gains for students.
The study was guided by two questions:
1. What does the instructional dialogue look like when teachers implement the instructional phases of 3-RCI?
2. Does the implementation of 3-RCI impact students' ability to comprehend grade-level text?
During Phase One (five sessions), teachers taught metacognitive strategies.
The goal of Phase Two (15 sessions) was to give the students tools to aid in thinking while reading.
Finally, during the 10 sessions of Phase Three, students were encouraged to participate in peer-led discussions, with support from the teacher.
When teachers teach, students learn.
When teachers teach a certain way, students learn more.
Effective teaching has very distinct and recognizable characteristics.
Teachers need differentiated support, just as their students do.
To determine the extent to which these results can be generalized to other populations and settings, additional studies, which follow the same instructional pattern but incorporate an
, are needed.
When looking at the learning span of struggling readers, success must be
maintained over time and outside the intervention
setting in order to be beneficial.
More finite measures
of progress in reading comprehension are needed.
Three-Phase Cycle of Instruction
The cycle begins with the teacher's explicit strategy instruction, explains essential comprehension strategies.
During the second phase, called scaffolded support, the teacher offers varying degrees of support as students practice the strategy.
The final phase, called independent application, is when students are able to use comprehension strategies while reading on their own.
While all students gained in reading comprehension, students in the intervention teaching groups gained more in reading comprehension than those in the normal teaching groups