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GENDER DIFFERENCES IN (NONVERBAL) COMMUNICATION
Transcript of GENDER DIFFERENCES IN (NONVERBAL) COMMUNICATION
gender vs. sex (biological)
Maccoby and Jacklin,
The Psychology of Sex Differences,
gender differences established in only four areas
the gender similarity hypothesis
meta-analysis method shows that M and F are similiar on most psychological variables,
the role of context: math tests experiment (Spencer et al., 1999)
Deindividuation (Lightdale and Prentice: 1994)
dropping bombs experiment: aggression
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY stance (Buss: 2011) similar adaptive problems; difference: mating and sexuality
Ekman and Friesen (1969) Primary sources of nonverbal communication
Henley‘s theory of correlation between nonverbal communication, status, and gender e.g. (Hall's criticism no fix meaning though, meaning a priori)
gazing patterns (Bente, Donaghy: 1998 and Henley: 1977) F attentive
touch MF and FM (Hall and Veccia: 1996)
touch initiation (Heslin and Boss: 1980)
smiling (Francine M. Deutsch: 2014) job interview experiment
courtship and touch initiation: nonhuman primates ->grooming
haptic behaviour between women and men is the amount of time spent
in the proximal mode of interaction [physical contact] , which is a far longer period than in the case of boys who are moved to distal mode of interaction [interaction from a distance] faster (Lewis 1972: 234-235 )
Empathy and nonverbal communication
Situational empathy and dispositional empathy (trait)
Gender differences in brain networks supporting empathy: facial expressions( Martin Schulte-Rüther: 2008)
The data suggest that females recruit areas containing mirror neurons to a higher degree than males during both SELF- and OTHER-related processing in empathic face-to-face interactions.
-there are more similarities than differences between M and F
- it calls out for interdisciplinary framework, because both biology and the environment are the cause of gender differences,
context is vital,
universality: cross cultural studies,
empathy effects of using technology
1. inherited neurological programmes
2. experience common to all members of the species
3. Experience that varies with culture, class etc.
Gender differences in communicating?
Wood, Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender and Culture: women -interpersonal meaning; men: status
relations towards others: F: similarities between interlocutors, M: competitiveness, independence (Chodorow, 1978)
Women are expected to use communication to enhance social connections and relationships, while men use language to enhance social dominance (Leaper, 1991; Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons, 2001). Women use more expressive, tentative, and polite language than men do, especially in situations of conflict (Basow & Rubenfield, 2003) & gender linked traits
Gender differences and nonverbal communication
Basow, S. A., & Rubenfeld, K. (2003). “Troubles talk”: Effects of gender and gender typing.
Wood, J. (2009). Gendered lives: Communication, gender, and culture (8th Edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Mulac. A.. Bradac. J. J.. & Gibbons. P (2001). Empirical support for the gender as culture hypothesis. Human Communication Research.
Hyde, J. Shibley. The Gender Similarity Hypothesis. American Psychologist.2005. p.581-592.
Buss, Schmitt, Evolutionary Psychology and Feminism. Sex Roles 2011.
Fisher Agneta, Gender and Emotion: Social Psychological Perspectives, 2000.
Martin Schulte-Rüther,Hans J. Markowitsch, Gender differences in brain networks supporting empathy, NeuroImage 2008
Status, Sex, and Smiling The Effect of Role on Smiling in Men and Women. Francine M. Deutsch. Personality and Social Psychology.2014