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English Grammar Intro
Transcript of English Grammar Intro
How many minutes? English Section 1. Read Efficiently 2. Predict and Eliminate 3. Plug In Pause at each underlined portion
Identify the issue: STOP. Think: what's wrong here?
Organization? Read answer choices and question stems
Be sure to read all four choices: usually more than one is grammatically correct. You are looking for the best answer!!
Rule out choices that don't address the issue Substitute Remaining Choices
Select the Best Choice WORD CHOICE The train whistle in the station The train whistles in the station Upon reaching the open areas, I rode more fastly. Upon reaching the open areas, I rode much faster. VERB TENSE WORD CHOICE Idioms It sailed past me, as a big clipper ship speeding across the ocean. It sailed past me, like a big clipper ship speeding across the ocean. CONNECTIONS = sentence/ paragraph transitions, clause linkage, conjunctions (and, or/ nor, yet, so, but) First decide: is the connector a continuation of an idea or a disagreement with it? Continuation Disagreement So
But WORDINESS = You must choose the most concise way to express an idea. Sometime in the 1690s, they were eventually divorced and ended their marriage. Sometime in the 1690s, they divorced. Amsterdam funded and financed her trip. Amsterdam funded her trip. CONNECTIONS Indeed, L.A. residents, like almost all Californians, drive their own cars. Being a New Yorker, I had very little driving experience, even though I possessed a driver's license. WORD CHOICE Idioms (Phrases) = does the phrase fit into the context? Does it use the correct preposition? Prepositions Around
During The cold gray-brown of the ground rushes up and collided with an endless sky. The cold gray-brown of the ground rushes up and collides with an endless sky. Except
Unlike Then decide, does the connector properly relate the ideas its connecting? A. NO CHANGE
D. Furthermore Do the ideas contrast? Would the sentences connect? Does the 2nd sentence add information? Suggests inexperience - this is an observation QUESTION TYPES 1. Connections
4. Sentence Sense
5. Verb Tenses
6. Word Choice
8. Writing Strategy SENTENCE SENSE Fragments SENTENCE SENSE Clauses Because he left his shoes at the beach. Milena was angry at her brother because he left his shoes at the beach. Clause = a part of a sentence. The smallest grammatical unit. The kayaker survived through his knowledge and skill having recognized the onset of hypothermia and keeping himself warm. What are some ways you can fix this? Semi-colon
Make 2 sentences SENTENCE SENSE Clause Semicolon The kayaker survived through his knowledge and skill; he recognized the onset of hypothermia and kept himself warm. Conjunction The kayaker survived through his knowledge and skill, and recognized the onset of hypothermia. 2 Sentences The kayaker survived through his knowledge and skill. He recognized the onset of hypothermia and kept himself warm. FANBOYS For, and, not, but, or, yet, and so are the only words that can connect independent clauses with just a comma. Conjunctions SENTENCE SENSE Modifier questions Modifier concerns placement. Modifying words/ phrases should be as close as possible to the word it modifies. Handling the salt dough, the child created carefully a village of figurines. What is "carefully" supposed to describe? Handling. Carefully handling the salt dough, the child created a village of figurines.
SENTENCE SENSE Misplaced Modifiers A well-known rendezvous spot in New York City, we arranged to meet Grandma and Grandpa by the clock in Grand Central Terminal. We arranged to meet Grandma and Grandpa by the clock in Grand Central Terminal, a well-known rendezvous spot in New York City. What is the phrase describing? The clock in Grand Central Terminal PUNCTUATION The ACT addresses five punctuation issues: 1) commas
5) dashes PUNCTUATION Commas 1) List I bought sticky notes, gel pens, a binder, and some stickers for my little brother. 2) Conjunctions Helen wanted to go home, but Paris wouldn't let her. 3) Introductory phrase Taking one step at a time, the toddler climbed the stairs successfully. 4) To separate a nonessential element (appositive) The rules, as you well know, do not allow tardiness. PUNCTUATION Semicolons 1) Combine independent clauses The snow fell heavily during the night; by 5 A.M., Peter was plowing the city streets. 2) List, when items already have commas She served us croissants, jam, and honey in the morning; quiche and salad at lunch; and chicken, potatoes, and pie for dinner. PUNCTUATION Colons 1) Introduce a short phrase, quotation, explanation, or example One animal uses its distinctive white stripe to stand out from its surroundings: the skunk. 2) Introduce a list F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote several well-known novels: The Great Gatsby, Tender is the Night, and The Beautiful and Damned. PUNCTUATION Apostrophes 1) Possessive noun Alda's dog, Felix, amused everyone. Thomas's dog, Felix, amused everyone. The Jones' dog, Felix, amused everyone. 2) Contractions It's never going to stop snowing! EXCEPTION: Possessive "it" has no apostrophe The tree is old; its bark is rough. PUNCTUATION Dashes 1) Indicate hesitation or an interruption in the main thought "But I -- but you said -- wait, what?" stammered Edna. 2) Use a dash to enclose explanations (where you could use parentheses) Cross-stitching -- a form of embroidery -- seems very simple, but is quite difficult to master. ORGANIZATION Asks you to put paragraphs or sentences in order Brackets WRITING STRATEGY Tone/ topic of the passage May ask you to: Select the best sentence to include a point Describe the purpose of a detail, sentence, paragraph, or the whole passage Decide where a sentence should be inserted Examples:
"Suppose the author had been given the assignment of writing about culinary trends in history. Would this essay satisfy the requirement?"
"The author wants to add a sentence to introduce the essay. Which of the following sentences would best serve this purpose?" Decide if the passage fulfilled an assignment THE END