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Chemotherapy Prezi

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Rachel Han

on 30 March 2011

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Transcript of Chemotherapy Prezi

Cancer Tumors Masses of tissue

Affect digestive, nervous, circulatory systems

Release hormones that affect bodily function Malignant Tumors Invasion: cancerous cells move via bloodstream lymph system, destroying healthy cells and tissue Angiogenesis: cancerous cells divide and grow to make own blood vessels to feed on Technology Surgery Used if cancer is not widespread

Removal of affected body part

Difficult to remove all cancer cells Radiation Focuses high-energy rays on affected area, destroying molecules that create cancer cells

Used to shrink tumors or remove cancer cells

Can also damage healthy tissue Immunotherapy Purpose is to strengthen immune system to fight tumor

Injections of proteins can improve entire immune system, destroying cancerous cells

Example: bone marrow transplant - donor's cells will attack and destroy the tumor cells Gene Therapy Replacing damaged genes with working genes Chemotherapy Use of chemicals that damage proteins or DNA in rapidly dividing cells

Prevents cell division of those cells) INSERT VIDEO!! Alkylating Agents Changes regular structure of DNA, causing those cells to die

Can also produce cancerous cells

Add alkyl group to DNA in the cancer cell

Disables DNA from coiling and uncoiling, and thus cannot replicate
Antimetabolites Mimics reproductive chemical building blocks of cell, interfering with cell replication

Molecule that mimics purine/pyrimidine prevents their incorporation in DNA during the S phase of Interphase

Prevents further division of the cell

Leads to cancerous cell death Example: Altretamine and Chlorambucil RNA is unable to read information from the DNA

Cannot transport information to the ribosomes in the cell

Ribosomes cannot make proteins

Cell becomes dysfunctional Example: Capecitabine and Hydroxyurea Mitotic Inhibitors Interfere with structures that induce mitosis

Specifically microtubules Microtubules Structures that pull apart chromosomes in cell division
Part of cytoskeleton, move cellular components throughout the cell
Polymer of the protein tubulin Mitotic inhibitors interfere with the assembling and disassembling of tubulin polymers
Thus, microtubules can no longer aid in cell division Cellular Research Tumors are masses of rapidly dividing cells caused by the localized uncontrollable division of cells
Based on scientific research, it is known that the main cellular structure that enables a cells to divide is the DNA (a nucloetide) which holds the genetic information It is also known that the DNA is a double helix structure that uncoils during cell division to copy its genetic material to the daughter cells
It is also known that DNA is composed of a phosphate group, a deoxyribose (pentose sugar) and a nitrogenous base RNA copy’s the DNA’s genetic information to ribosomes which synthesize proteins that enable the cell to function Scientific research shows that microtubules (which are part of a cell’s cytoskeleton) are responsible for pulling apart chromosomes during mitosis (M phase of cell division)
Microtubules are composed of tubulin polymers
Impact on Society Impact on Economy Cancer Treatment Advancements Particle Replication technology invented by researchers at the University of North Carolina consists of nanoparticles that mimic the shape and size of red blood cells They are hydrogel particles that flow through the bloodstream similarly to red blood cells These particles can be filled with cancer fighting medicines that can kill cancerous cells in a more aggressive manner than traditional cancer treatments Particle Replication Technology Gene Therapy Genetic screening allows the identification of potential cancer causing genes in gametes of individuals who have a family history of cancer to determine the risk of cancer Methods of Treatment Capsules
Taken as an injection into the skin, muscles or spinal fluid
Given as IV (intravaneous) Interesting Facts Discovered in WWI when the white blood cell count in people decreased due to exposure to mustard gas (other chemicals with similar affects to mustard gas have been since utilized to kill rapidly growing cells) If the structure is broken, it will not be able to carry the genetic information to duplicate cells and other cellular strucutres! Hydrogen bonds form between the nitrogenous bases in the antiparallel strands which make it coil Chemotherapy is widely referred to as drugs specialized in cancer treatment, but it actually simply means: chemical therapy Breaking the hydrogen bonds will damage the structure of the DNA Ex: Alkylating agents disturb the DNA structure and disable it from passing on its genetic information to produce daughter cells Cancer refers to diseases grouped as out-of-control cell division/growth What do people know about chemotherapy? Impact on Health Thoughts of burden of loss for family members Changes overall behaviour of social groups/social interactions Example) The side effect of fatigue on the patient makes them feel isolated from social activities Emotional distress occurs when the patient must take a leave of absence from school or work Cost of Chemotherapy
Breast Cancer: from $4189 to $20 964
Prostate Cancer: from $5435 to $41 134
Lung Cancer: $7139 to $39 891
*Results obtained from the past decade Increase in Costs
Advancements in technology costs involved in research and production of the chemicals Drugs for these treatments can cost up to $100,000 Anemia Chemotherapy affects all rapidly growing cells - cells that make up hair and nails After treatment completion, normal cells are able to regenerate Kidney/Bladder problems Common rapidly growing cells that are affected are: Red blood cells in bone marrow Cells in the reproductive organs Cells in the digestive tract Blood Clotting Decreased number of red blood cells Hemoglobin is unable to carry oxygen to the cells Can affect bone marrow's ability to make platelets (blood cells that help stop bleeding by making your blood clot) Without platelets, one may bleed or bruise easier Lead to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) Cell cycle and process of cell division Both, normal cells and cancer cells go through the process of cell division 5 Stages:
Decreased urine output, fatigue, muscle weakness, swelling of hands/feet, nausea Chemotherapy treatment has exploded into a multibillion-dollar industry - especially in countries like the United States where the majority of health institutions are private and take money directly from the patients When the microtubules become more stable, they prevent the centromeres from splitting during mitosis which ultimately prevents mitosis from completing Plant Alkanoids and Terpenoids Alkanoids come from plants
Inhibits mitosis by preventing the function of microtubules
Two subcategories: Vinca Alkanoids and Taxanes

G0 phase - cell is resting, carrying out metabolic activites
G1 phase - cell produces more proteins, increases in size to be large enough to divide during cell division
S phase - chromosomes duplicate (contain genetic material, DNA, so it can be copied to the daughter cells)
G2 phase - DNA is examined and the cell prepares for division
M phase (mitosis) - the cell divides Most chemotherapy drugs are made to work on cells that are reproducing (that are not in the G0 phase) Many chemotherapy drugs created specifically for
- the S phase (DNA duplication) Chemotherapy drugs specialized to attack the cell during the S phase can contain substances that prevent the DNA from duplicating (so the genetic material of the cancer cell cannot be copied to daughter cells)
ex. Alkylating Agents There are specialized drugs that target specific phases of mitosis to prevent cell replication.
Ex. Making microtubules more stable prevents centrioles from splitting during the anaphase stage of mitosis As is evident, many people are misinformed about the nature of chemotherapy. As cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, it is important to educate ourselves about the treatment options that are available. Cancer support groups are often formed in communities for those who are affected with cancer as well as their relatives Although there are many side effects, chemotherapy ultimately saves the lives of millions of cancer victims and restores their quality of life Depurination occur on alkylated purines, which break the bond between the purine and sugar (damaging protein)

Decrease blood cell count and therefore makes the patient prone to anemia Vinca Alkanoids: bind to tublin, blocking its assembly into microtubules (during M phase)
Taxanes: increase the stability of the microtubules, preventing separation of the chromosomes during anaphase or
- the M phase
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